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in 1MLD years

in 1MLD years

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End of the drying up of the oceans: all the water that was on the surface is filtered in the subsoil and in the mantle which is no longer hot enough to re-emit it to the surface in the form of steam. Even life in the

2001

2001

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Evidence of meteorite impact is found as also causing the P-Tr extinction of 250MLN years ago; one proof is the “extraterrestrial” proportion of Helium and Argon in air bubbles in rocks of that epoch found in China, Hungary, Japan; other evidence concerns the geologically short nature of

1993

1993

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The two Americans David Raup and Jack Sepkoski, graphing the number of marine animal families over millions of years, discover the 5 great mass extinctions (439, 367, 245, 208, 65 million years ago)

1991

1991

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Evidence of the crater in the Yucatan responsible for the extinction of the dinosaurs found

1985

1985

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The British Antartic Survey reveals the ozone hole with measurements over the past 30 years

June 1980

June 1980

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The geologist Walter Alvarez, and the famous quantum physicist Luis Alvarez, publish the article “Extraterrestrial Cause for the Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction”, or the discovery of the reason for the extinction of the dinosaurs, attributed to the impact of a meteorite, evidence originating from samples found in

1980

1980

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George Gaylord Simpson, the most famous paleontologist of this period, publishes an article in which he argues that the extinction of the late Cretaceous (of dinosaurs for example) must be considered a long and continuous process. The same year the geologist Walter Alvarez, and the famous

1977

1977

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A casual conversation between father and son, Luis and Walter Alvarez, a physicist and geologist, leads to the discovery of the KT event or the impact of the Chixulub meteorite 65 million years ago; Walter Alvaresz had in fact discovered a layer of Iridium (of probable

1977

1977

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Geologist Walter Alvarez gets a job in Berkeley, where his father also works, the famous quantum physicist Luis Alvarez, who, in addition to having made a fundamental contribution to the invention of the atomic bomb and particle accelerators, also revealed, through muon detectors, which the

1974

1974

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Drilling of the earth’s crust begins in Oklahoma; the hole is called GHK / Lone Star’s Bertha Rogers 1-27 and will reach 9583m before meeting a layer of molten sulfur

1972

1972

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George Kukla of Columbia University, studying glacial deposits in Soviet bloc countries, comes to the conclusion, in a letter to President Nixon, that the next ice age could come much sooner than expected, due to the possible slowdown of the Gulf Stream.

1971

1971

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Derweze (or Darvaza), Turkmenistan (USSR). Soviet geologists while digging an oil well, cause a collapse in the ground with a diameter of about 70m, from which gaseous methane comes out. In an attempt to consume the poison gas, they set it on fire. After half a century it

May 1970

May 1970

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Drilling of the earth’s crust begins on the Kola peninsula; the hole is called Kola SG-3 Zapolyarny and will reach 12262m in 1994, without reaching the Earth’s fluid mantle; however, around 5km of depth, it will encounter a deep layer of fractured rock saturated with water

July 21, 1969

July 21, 1969

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Tranquility Base, Sea of ​​Tranquility, Moon. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin collect on the lunar soil, among the many rock samples, also (Fe2 +, Mg) Ti2 O5. The mineral will be unknown previously, and will be called Armalcolite, from the initials of Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins (who was

1966

1966

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Congress cancels the Mohole project, which sought to dig, from a boat, a 5000m hole in the thin earth’s crust of the Pacific Ocean off Mexico; the depth reached was instead of only 180m (over 4000m of ocean!)

May 27, 1962

May 27, 1962

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Centralia, Pennsylvania. The underground carboniferous field catches fire and burns slowly. After half a century, the fire has not yet been put out and the whole area has been practically abandoned.

60’s

60’s

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Bob Christiansen of the US Geological Survey understands that the entire Yellowstone National Park is the caldera (65km in diameter!) Of a volcano, which feeds on a superplume 200km below, a 72km diameter and thick magma chamber 13Km; the pressure exerted by the magma still raises

1962

1962

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A large impact structure is discovered in Yucatan; it was the Chixulub crater of 65 million years ago, but initially the discovery went completely unnoticed and the thing was rediscovered in 1981 after the Alvarez had already hypothesized a 65 million years old impact somewhere on

60’s

60’s

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The American Mohole program is developed without success (from the name of the Croatian scientist Andrija Mohorovicic, who discovered the existence of the border between the crust and the mantle at about 35Km below Europe) which, through deep perforations, seeks the beginning of the mantle

1960

1960

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Samples of the terrestrial crust of the mid-Atlantic ridge show a progressively greater age as one moves away from the ridge

1955

1955

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In one of his last acts before his death, Albert Einstein writes a short but intense preface to the book “Earth’s Shifting Crust: a Key to some Basic Problems of Earth Science” by Charles Hapgood, in which he harshly criticizes the theory of continental drift.

1949

1949

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EC Bullard of Cambridge University, hypothesizes that the differential rotation of the core and the outer part of the planet works like a gigantic electric motor forming the Earth’s magnetic field

1944

1944

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The English geologist Arthur Holmes, in the book “Principle of Physical Geology”, is the first to understand that the radioactive decay of the interior of the planet can produce convection

1936

1936

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The Danish geologist Inge Lehmann while examining the readings of a seismometer after an earthquake in New Zealand discovers that the Earth’s core is divided into a solid, internal, and a liquid, external, and origin of the Earth’s magnetic field

1930

1930

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The Russian-German meteorologist Wladimir Koppen, speculates that the cause of the ice ages is to be found not in harsh winters but in cool summers

1926

1926

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The British mathematician Harold Jeffreys confirms the hypothesis of the Irish geologist RD Oldham who years earlier had noticed that some shock waves from an earthquake in Guatemala had penetrated the planet to a certain depth and then bounced back to the surface. Jeffreys confirms that

1912

1912

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The German meteorologist Alfred Wegner explains the complementarity of the continents on both sides of the Atlantic with the continental drift; is received with extreme skepticism

1909

1909

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The Croatian geologist Andrija Mohorovicic while examining the readings of a seismometer after an earthquake in Zagreb, notes that some shock waves have penetrated the planet to a certain (low) depth and then bounce back to the surface, and thus discovers the existence of the

1908

1908

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American geologist Frank Bursley Taylor decides to investigate the reason for the similarity of the shape of the coast of South America and Africa

1907

1907

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Bertram Boltwood combines information on uranium half-life and uranium lead abundances to estimate the age of the Earth as 2.2 billion years

1906

1906

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The Irish geologist RD Oldham while examining the readings of a seismometer after an earthquake in Guatemala, notes that some shock waves have penetrated the planet to a certain depth and then bounce back to the surface, and thus discover the existence of the earth’s

1905

1905

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Lord Kelvin re-calculates the age of planet Earth by also including the (predominant) heat source due to the decay of the radioactive elements included in it (previously unknown). The new calculation extends the age of the Earth from a few thousand years to several hundreds of

1875

1875

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Scottish physicist James Croll suggests that the mass extinctions that have occurred every 100,000 years are due to the change in the amount of solar radiation due to extraterrestrial causes.

1864

1864

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James Croll of Anderson University in Glasgow, in Philosophical Magazine theorizes that variations in the Earth’s orbit may be the cause of ice ages

1818

1818

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The American John Cleves Symmes proposes the Hollow Earth Theory, namely that the planet is a hollow sphere with 4 concentric spheres inside, with huge holes at the poles of 1400km wide. Several expeditions to the poles will be planned in the following decades to find

July 1776

July 1776

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A meteorite crashes in Albareto, Modena; the object will be fragmented and sold to various collectors and museums; a small fragment the size of a fist is still kept at the Department of Geological Sciences of Modena

1618

1618

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Francis Bacon notes that the continents seem to coincide on both sides of the Atlantic; it will take almost 300 years to have an explanation

540

540

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For several years, a brief episode of extreme cold has occurred in China, North America and Europe

5500 BC

5500 BC

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The Sahara, in a few centuries, transforms from a prairie with monsoons to a sandy desert (the monsoons have disappeared due to the shift of the perihelion)

7500 BC

7500 BC

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The waters of the Mediterranean, following the end of the Wurz glaciation, rise up to overcome the natural barrier of the Bosphorus and enter the fresh water lake represented by the Black Sea basin; the cascade of water continues for about a century and perhaps gives

20 000 BC

20 000 BC

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The southern end of the glacier, which covers a large part of North America, reaches Staten Island (just south of Manhattan). The movement of the ice carves the landscape up to the bedrock, still visible for example in Central Park. The subsequent retreat of the ice will

20 000 BC

20 000 BC

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At the height of the ice age, a huge landslide in the Mediterranean releases immense quantities of methane, probably over 500 million tons, which double the methane in the atmosphere in a very short time causing a sudden greenhouse effect.

72 000 BC

72 000 BC

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Mount Toba volcano eruption in Sumatra; it lasts 6 years and causes an ice age episode that lasts centuries; this event may have brought mankind to the brink of extinction, reducing the entire human population on Earth to a few thousand individuals; this could be the explanation of

75 000 BC

75 000 BC

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Ends Sangamon interglacial period, a period of approximately relative climatic stability, not unlike what we are experiencing now, for the last 12,000 years.

780,000 BC

780,000 BC

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Last inversion of the Earth’s magnetic field; previously there had been a magnetic reversal (North to South) every 200,000 years or so