Skip links

Ge

in 1 billion years

in 1 billion years

Tags

End of the drying up of the oceans: all the water that was on the surface is filtered into the subsoil and into the mantle which is no longer hot enough to re-emit it to the surface in the form of steam. Even life in

Sep-18

Sep-18

Tags

Big Island, Hawaii. The eruption of Kilauea, which had begun 35 years earlier, in January 1983, suddenly ends.

2001

2001

Tags

Evidence of meteorite impact is found as also causing the P-Tr extinction of 250MLN years ago; one proof is the “extraterrestrial” proportion of Helium and Argon in air bubbles in rocks of that epoch found in China, Hungary, Japan; other evidence concerns the geologically short

1993

1993

Tags

The two Americans David Raup and Jack Sepkoski, graphing the number of marine animal families over millions of years, discover the 5 great mass extinctions (439, 367, 245, 208, 65 million years ago)

1991

1991

Tags

Evidence of the crater in the Yucatan responsible for the extinction of the dinosaurs found

1985

1985

Tags

The British Antartic Survey reveals the ozone hole with measurements over the past 30 years

Jan-83

Jan-83

Tags

Big Island, Hawaii. Kilauea eruption begins. It will continue for 35 years without interruption, to suddenly end in September 2018.

Jun-80

Jun-80

Tags

The geologist Walter Alvarez, and the famous quantum physicist Luis Alvarez, publish the article “Extraterrestrial Cause for the Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction”, or the discovery of the reason for the extinction of the dinosaurs, attributed to the impact of a meteorite, evidence originating from samples found in

1980

1980

Tags

George Gaylord Simpson, the most famous paleontologist of this period, publishes an article in which he argues that the extinction of the late Cretaceous (of dinosaurs for example) must be considered a long and continuous process. The same year the geologist Walter Alvarez, and the

1977

1977

Tags

A casual conversation between father and son, Luis and Walter Alvarez, a physicist and geologist, leads to the discovery of the KT event or the impact of the Chixulub meteorite 65 million years ago; Walter Alvaresz had in fact discovered a layer of Iridium (of

1977

1977

Tags

Geologist Walter Alvarez gets a job in Berkeley, where his father also works, the famous quantum physicist Luis Alvarez, who, in addition to having made a fundamental contribution to the invention of the atomic bomb and particle accelerators, also revealed, through muon detectors, which the

1974

1974

Tags

Drilling of the earth’s crust begins in Oklahoma; the hole is called GHK / Lone Star’s Bertha Rogers 1-27 and will reach 9583m before meeting a layer of molten sulfur

1972

1972

Tags

George Kukla of Columbia University, studying glacial deposits in Soviet bloc countries, comes to the conclusion, in a letter to President Nixon, that the next ice age could come much sooner than expected, due to the possible slowdown of the Gulf Stream.

1971

1971

Tags

Derweze, Turkmenistan (USSR). Soviet geologists while digging an oil can, cause a collapse in the ground with a diameter of about 70m, from which gaseous methane comes out. In an attempt to consume the poison gas, they set it on fire. After half a century

May-70

May-70

Tags

The drilling of the earth’s crust begins on the Kola peninsula; the hole is called Kola SG-3 Zapolyarny and will reach 12262m in 1994, without reaching the Earth’s fluid mantle; however, around 5km of depth, it will encounter a deep layer of fractured rock saturated

July 21, 1969

July 21, 1969

Tags

Tranquility Base, Sea of ??Tranquility, Moon. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin collect on the lunar soil, among the many rock samples, also (Fe2 +, Mg) Ti2 O5. The mineral will be unknown previously, and will be called Armalcolite, from the initials of Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins

1966

1966

Tags

Congress cancels the Mohole project, which sought to dig, from a boat, a 5000m hole in the thin crust of the Pacific Ocean off Mexico; the depth reached was instead of only 180m (over 4000m of ocean!)

May 27, 1962

May 27, 1962

Tags

Centralia, Pennsylvania. The underground carboniferous field catches fire and burns slowly. After half a century, the fire has not yet been put out and the whole area has been practically abandoned.

60’s

60’s

Tags

Bob Christiansen of the US Geological Survey understands that the entire Yellowstone National Park is the caldera (65km in diameter!) Of a volcano, which feeds on a superplume 200km below, a 72km diameter and thick magma chamber 13Km; the pressure exerted by the magma still

1962

1962

Tags

A large impact structure is discovered in Yucatan; it was the Chixulub crater of 65 million years ago, but initially the discovery went completely unnoticed and the thing was rediscovered in 1981 after the Alvarez had already hypothesized a 65 million years old impact somewhere

60’s

60’s

Tags

The American Mohole program (from the name of the Croatian scientist Andrija Mohorovicic, who discovered the existence of the border between the crust and the mantle at about 35Km below Europe) is developed, without success, which, through deep perforations, seeks the beginning of the mantle

1960

1960

Tags

Samples of the terrestrial crust of the mid-Atlantic ridge show a progressively older age as one moves away from the ridge

1955

1955

Tags

In one of his last acts before his death, Albert Einstein writes a short but intense preface to the book “Earth’s Shifting Crust: a Key to some Basic Problems of Earth Science” by Charles Hapgood, in which he harshly criticizes the theory of continental drift.

1949

1949

Tags

EC Bullard of Cambridge University, hypothesizes that the differential rotation of the core and the outer part of the planet works like a gigantic electric motor forming the Earth’s magnetic field

1944

1944

Tags

The English geologist Arthur Holmes, in the book “Principle of Physical Geology”, is the first to understand that the radioactive decay of the interior of the planet can produce convection

1936

1936

Tags

The Danish geologist Inge Lehmann while examining the readings of a seismometer after an earthquake in New Zealand discovers that the Earth’s core is divided into a solid, internal, and a liquid, external, and origin of the Earth’s magnetic field

1930

1930

Tags

The Russian-German meteorologist Wladimir Koppen, hypothesizes that the cause of the ice ages is to be found not in hard winters but in cool summers

1926

1926

Tags

The British mathematician Harold Jeffreys confirms the hypothesis of the Irish geologist RD Oldham who years earlier had noticed that some shock waves from an earthquake in Guatemala had penetrated the planet to a certain depth and then bounced back to the surface. Jeffreys confirms

1912

1912

Tags

The German meteorologist Alfred Wegner explains the complementarity of the continents on both sides of the Atlantic with the continental drift; is received with extreme skepticism

1909

1909

Tags

The Croatian geologist Andrija Mohorovicic while examining the readings of a seismometer after an earthquake in Zagreb, notes that some shock waves have penetrated the planet to a certain (low) depth and then bounce and return to the surface, and thus discovers the existence of

1908

1908

Tags

American geologist Frank Bursley Taylor decides to investigate the reason for the similarity of the shape of the coast of South America and Africa

1907

1907

Tags

Bertram Boltwood Combines Information on Uranium Half-Life and Uranium Lead Abundance to Estimate the Age of the Earth at 2.2MLD Years

1906

1906

Tags

The Irish geologist RD Oldham while examining the readings of a seismometer after an earthquake in Guatemala, notes that some shock waves have penetrated the planet to a certain depth and then bounce back to the surface, and thus discover the existence of the earth’s

1905

1905

Tags

Lord Kelvin re-calculates the age of planet Earth by also including the (preponderant) heat source due to the decay of the radioactive elements included in it (previously unknown). The new calculation extends the age of the Earth from a few thousand years to several hundred

1875

1875

Tags

Scottish physicist James Croll suggests that the mass extinctions that have occurred every 100,000 years are due to the change in the amount of solar radiation due to extraterrestrial causes.

1864

1864

Tags

James Croll of Anderson University in Glasgow, in Philosophical Magazine theorizes that variations in the Earth’s orbit may be the cause of ice ages

1818

1818

Tags

The American John Cleves Symmes proposes the Hollow Earth Theory, namely that the planet is a hollow sphere with 4 concentric spheres inside, with huge holes at the poles of 1400km wide. Several expeditions to the poles will be planned in the following decades to find

July 1776

July 1776

Tags

A meteorite crashes in Albareto, Modena; the object will be fragmented and sold to various collectors and museums; a small fragment the size of a fist is still kept at the Department of Geological Sciences of Modena