Discovery in a Circeo cave: remains of 9 Neanderthals, including a teenager and a woman, in a cave used as a den by herds of hyenas. There are also remains of huge animals such as cave bears, cave lions, megalocerves. The cave was inhabited 100,000 to 60,000
Viviane Slon and Svante Pääbo of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, discover a hybrid between Neanderthal Homo (mother) and Denisova Homo Sapiens (father), who lived in Siberia 90,000 years ago.
Krapina, Croatia. Archaeologists Davorka Radovčić, Ankica Oros Sršen, Jakov Radovčić, David W. Frayer, find evidence of Neanderthal use of bracelets and necklaces 130,000 years ago, much earlier than modern Homo Sapiens did, and dozens of thousands of years before modern Homo Sapiens reached the European continent.
Gorham Cave, Gibraltar. Archaeologist Clyve Finlayson, an expert on Neanderthal sites, finds an incredible double sign (a sort of X with other signs that make it look like a hashtag #) in the rock at one of these sites. Call another expert: Francesco d’Errico, from the University
The Italian team led by Marco Peresani of the University of Ferrara, publishes an article on the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences US, in which it brings evidence of the hunting by Neanderthals of different species of birds, but also of the use,
Amanda Henry and her Smithsonian team publish an article proving that Neanderthals from two sites in Belgium and Iraq unequivocally cooked their food. The analysis is done through tiny fossil remains on Neanderthal teeth. Clive Finlayson will also show that they roasted pigeons in Spain, evidence found
The Swedish scientist Paabo publishes in Nature the discovery of a now extinct human race, which he calls Denisovan, also crossed with Homo Sapiens: the inhabitants of New Guinea have up to 6% of the genes of Denisovan’s Homo (which flourished mainly in Siberia, but
The Swedish scientist Paabo publishes in Science the scientific theory of “leaky replacement”, where, thanks to the complete genome of Neanderthal Homo, he concludes that 2% to 4% of the non-African Homo Sapiens genome belongs to the Homo of Neanderthal.
Siberia, in the Denisova cave, in the Altai Mountains, in Russia, but almost on the border with Kazakhstan, China and Mongolia, excavations in successive rounds bring to light the bones of a finger of a new Homo species: Homo Denisova.
The results of the Neanderthal Homo genome and compared with the Homo Sapiens DNA are published. It turns out that 1% to 4% of the DNA of present-day populations of Europe and the Middle East, and as a consequence of the Americas and Australia, are derived
Joao Zilhao and his team discover that in southeastern Spain, 50,000 years ago, Neanderthals used red and yellow pigments and shell necklaces.
Archaeologist Curtis Marean publishes an article in the journal Nature in which he brings evidence of the presence of marine invertebrates (such as mussels) in the diet of Homo Sapiens in South Africa 164,000 years ago.
In the Djurab Desert in Chad, a team of French researchers discovers bones of Sahelanthropus Tchadensis from almost seven million years ago, a creature already bipedal
Bones of Orrorin Tugenensis from 6 million years ago are discovered
Bones of Ardipithecus Ramidus Kadabba from 5.2-5.8 million years ago are discovered
In Lake Turkania, Kenya, Mary Leakey discovers bones of Kenyanthropus Playtops (Kenyan flat-faced)
Zoological Institute, University of Munich. Svante Paabo and his collaborators manage to extract Neanderthal DNA from bones found near Bonn years earlier. This is mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) which makes up only 0.0005% of our DNA. This is the first hominid DNA ever extracted and sequenced.
Gobekli Teple, southeastern Turkey. An archaeological site is excavated where 10 monumental “T” structures, from 5 to 30 meters high, dated to 9500 BC, are discovered, without evident practical use. They were probably erected by bands of hunter-gatherers for obscure cultural reasons.
Man found in Similaun on the border between Austria and Italy
The skeleton of “Sue” is found in South Dakota: the only complete specimen of Tyrannosaurus Rex
In Kentucky a group of speleologists discovers a connection between a huge system of caves and the Mammuth Cave thus discovering the largest system of caves: 150 Km; human testimonies and bodies mummified by time have been found, dating back to more than 2000 years ago,
In Laetoli, Tanzania, Mary Leakey discovers the footprints of a group (possibly a family) of Australopithecus
A group of Chinese peasants, digging a well in Xi’an, find a terracotta warrior; subsequent excavations, which lasted years, and not yet completed, bring to light over 7000 statues like this one, of exquisite workmanship and each one unique in detail; it is a complex part of
In Hadar in Ethiopia Donald Johanson discovers the bones of a 3.18 million year old Australopithecus: it is Lucy
Louis Leakey coins the name Homo Abilis due to the fact that he is the first hominid to use tools
A contingent of US marines is caught in China after the attack on Pearl Harbor and tries to leave the country, occupied by the Japanese; the marines are in possession of the bones of the Peking Man (Sinanthropus Pekinensis) discovered by the Canadian Davidson Black at
New Guinea. An Archbold Expedition airplane accidentally discovers an inland valley, the Grand Valley of the Baliem River, where it finds a population, the Dani, previously unknown, and never in contact with Europeans before. That is for 46 thousand years, that is, since the Dani arrived from
Australian Raymond Dart of the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg receives the first complete skull of an Australopithecus Africanus
Osborn in Mongolia discovers the first Velociraptor fossils
India. Mohenjo-daro, a thriving city in the Indus valley, destroyed around 1900 BC and flourished for centuries in the previous millennium, is unearthed by a British archaeological mission in 1922. No previous Indian civilization had ever noticed this. testimony. Or more likely, he never looked for it. The
American expedition in the Gobi desert in Mongolia, found 25 dinosaur eggs and fossils dating back to 85 – 25 million years ago
Crete Island. Archaeologists working on a Minoan site find a circular clay disk, covered with spiral scriptures, with 241 very elaborate signs or letters, evidently printed on the clay. The meaning of these signs is still a mystery, as nothing else of the same type has been
The Mammoth of Berezovka is discovered, a specimen of mammoth complete with meat in excellent condition, is exhibited at the zoological museum of St. Petersburg
Brown discovers the first fossil specimen of Tyrannosaurus Rex. In the twentieth century. 12 will be discovered, all in the North of the USA (Dakota, Wyoming, Montana) and South of Canada (Sasketchwan)
Dubois returns to Europe after his discovery of the Trinial SkullCap attributed to the hominid Anthropitecus erectus, later popularized as Java Man and today known as Homo Erectus; he expects a triumphal welcome, which instead turns out to be very lukewarm and even hostile; Dubois died in
In Java, Indonesia, Dubois finds a portion of a human skull (Trinial SkullCap) attributed to the hominid Anthropitecus erectus, later popularized as Java Man and now known as Homo Erectus
The first fossil of Triceratops defined by Marsh, Bisonalticornis, was found in Colorado
OC Marsh in a hasty note typical of the race of these times that sees him opposed to Edwin D. Cope, describes the Brontosaurus, in reality it is always the Apatosaurus Ajax always described by him a few years earlier; the huge amount of artifacts found
OC Marsh in a hasty note typical of the race of these times that sees him opposed to Edwin D. Cope, describes the Apatosaurus Ajax; the haste is also dictated by the enormous amount of artifacts found in North America in a few years
The billionaire Schliemann finds the ancient city of Troy in present-day Turkey, and believes he has recovered Priam’s treasure (8000 gold objects); in reality he had found objects 1000 years older than Homer’s Tria; which, on the other hand, lay a few meters above the excavations carried
In Belgium an iguanodon skeleton is found (it is one of the first dinosaurs found and studied)
During the excavations of the Union Pacific, the almost complete skeleton of the first Brontosaurus (thunder lizard) was found, which arouses great wonder and occupies the front pages of all newspapers
The first specimen of Archeopteryx, a 147-million-year-old dinosaur, with the skeleton, tail and teeth of a carnivorous saurian, and the feathers and brain of a bird, is discovered
Leinefelde, Germany. Naturalist Johann Carl Fuhlrott, two years before Darwin published the Origin of Species, suggests that the bones found in Neander a few years earlier are of a prehistoric form of human beings.
Neander in Germany specimens of Neanderthal Homo are discovered (among other things Neander in Greek means “new man”). Darwin has not yet published the Origin of Species. He will do it 3 years later.
Gibraltar miners discover Neanderthal Homo
In the 30s of the XIX century. British officer Henry Rawlinson is shown a huge stele with cuneiform inscriptions (only rediscovered in 1618 by the Spanish ambassador to Persia), ancient Persian, Elamite, Babylonian. He enlists a Kurdish boy who, hanging from the gigantic stele, copies the entire
First iguanodon fossil skeletons discovered
Arkansas. A Cherokee Indian named Sequoyah invents the Cherokee script. It is a well documented example, because it occurred in the modern age and therefore of great interest. Sequoyah is a blacksmith, and feels the need, initially, before 1810, for convenience to keep the accounts, to make a
New Zeland. Musket Wars. One of the New Zealand Maori tribes, the Ngapuhi, adopts muskets, buying them from European settlers. Violent battles quickly broke out among the Maori tribes, and as early as 1833, all those who survived the musket war, fully adopted firearms.
Fossil skeletons of early ichthyosaurs discovered
15 Germinal Year IV of the Revolutionary Calendar. Cuvier, from the Natural History Museum in Paris, presents the results of the analysis of animal remains found in Siberia (of a mammoth). He concludes that they resemble those of an elephant, but are evidently different. In particular, the molars
India. William Jones publishes his notes on the Sanskrit language, an ancient Indian language used for Hindu rituals, which connect it with ancient Greek, Latin, Gothic, Celtic, ancient Persian, German, French, English. Thus he founded comparative linguistics. For example in Sanskrit “mother” is “matar”, in Latin “mater”, in
Virginia. Thomas Jeffersson becomes involved in the scientific dispute over the origin of the strange bones and molars (actually of an American mastodon) found in North America. Jeffersson writes that the well-known American Incognitum is probably a carnivore, and that it is still found out there somewhere
North America. The Cherokees are originally divided into 30 or 40 independent and fiercely antagonistic domains (groups of villages). With the arrival of the competition with the white man, it happens more and more often, that if individual Cherokee steal or assault the camp of western settlers,
Upper state, New York. A molar from an American mastodon is shipped to London. The bones will be studied in 1739. More bones will be found in Ohio. The interpretation of these findings is not univocal: one thinks of giants that lived in antiquity, of an American Incognitum,
South Africa. First clash between the Dutch and the black people of the Bantu ethnic group. The arrival of the Dutch in South Africa had occurred in 1652 and starting from Cape Town, it had not found a great organized resistance from the indigenous, only some Khoisan
European scholars publish the first transcripts of cuneiform writing, only (re) discovered in 1618 by the Spanish ambassador to Persia. Local populations have always had this writing before their eyes of at least 3 millennia before, but no one, as far as we know, had ever
South Africa. The arrival of the Dutch in South Africa, starting from Cape Town, does not find a great organized resistance from the indigenous, only some Khoisan villages. They do not find dense Bantu populations as in other parts of Africa, and therefore they can correctly say
Australia. In the first encounter between aborigines and Europeans, the former are judged by the latter as the simplest and most backward culture in the world. In reality the aborigines, divided into antagonistic tribes, in 38000 BC were among the societies, or the most advanced society in
In Agricola’s De natura fossilium, minerals are classified and the term “fossil” coined
Americas. The Aztec and Maya population is initially exterminated mainly by diseases brought by the Spaniards (probably smallpox), but unlike in North America, in Central but above all in South America the indigenous people are so many that, even after the extermination, they still remain the
At the Castilian court in Spain, it is said that King Mohammed XI would have used as personal guards the wild men of Mulhacen (a mountainous area inaccessible in the Sierra Nevada) considered excellent warriors, taciturn and extremely strong. At the time they were identified as
Korea. King Sejong invents the Korean Han’gul alphabet, inspired by Chinese logograms and Mongolian and Tibetan Buddhist alphabetic scripts, adding new inventions such as grouping multiple letters into square blocks to represent words. It is therefore an example of the invention of writing for “idea diffusion”, albeit
Greenland. Last known contact between the Norwegian outposts and the rest of the Europeans. The first outposts had been established in 874. Then with the arrival of the Little Ice Age of the thirteenth century. Contact had become more difficult. After 1410 the outposts will be completely abandoned. Greenland will
The Maya independently invented the wheel. It is used in toys with wheels. The use for agricultural fine and traction is probably known, but not common as there are no draft animals, unlike Eurasia. One of the proofs of the independent invention is the fact that the Eurasian
Plain of Mississippi and east coast of North America, present-day Eastern United States. The cultivation of beans comes from Mexico. Much behind Mexico due to the barrier of North American deserts. It is even more late than Eurasia. This completes the Mexican trinity of corn, beans, pumpkin, which allows
First evidence of organization in states in West Africa. In Mesopotamia the step occurred 4700 years earlier, while in MesoAmerica it occurred 1300 years earlier, and finally in China, Southeast Asia and the Andes 1000 years earlier.
Thanks to the technology of Norwegian high seas ships, the island of Iceland is reached and populated.
Africa. The Bantu populations from Nigeria and Cameroon extend as far as Africa, thus becoming the dominant population of the entire African continent, relegating the pygmy hunter-gatherers and the Khoisan to isolated pockets of territory.
Thanks to the technology of the three-hulled canoes connected, on the high seas, the island of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean is reached and populated by the Austronesians, coming from the island of Borneo. There is no evidence that they came from Africa, through the Middle
Plain of Mississippi and east coast of North America, present-day Eastern United States. The cultivation of maize comes from Mexico. Much behind Mexico due to the barrier of North American deserts. It is even more late than Eurasia. The cultivation of beans will arrive, again from Mexico, only in
Eurasia. The cereals, originally cultivated only in the Fertile Half Moon, are now cultivated from the Atlantic coast of Europe, up to the Pacific coast of Japan at a distance of 14,000 km, or the greatest East-West distance (required for uniform conditions climatic) all continuously on
First evidence of organization in states in China, Andes, Southeast Asia. In Mesopotamia the passage occurred 3700 years earlier, while in MesoAmerica it occurred two or three centuries earlier, and finally in West Africa in the 10th century. A.D
Africa. The Bantu populations from Nigeria and Cameroon extend to the shores of the Indian Ocean in 200 BC. They will reach South Africa in 500 AD.
MesoAmerica (current Mexico). First evidence of organization in states on the American continent, which generally involve a complex social structure and the maintenance of an army. In Mesopotamia the passage took place 3400 years earlier, in the Andes, China and South-East Asia it will take place around
Invention and use of a complete writing system by the American Indians in MesoAmerica (now Mexico). It is one of only two certain instances of independently inventing writing. The other is by the Sumerians. The first testimony from Mexico is a written by Zapotec, in southern Mexico, but
Africa. The Bantu populations from Nigeria and Cameroon extend to the areas of the African Great Lakes (Rift Valley). They will reach the shores of the Indian Ocean in 200 BC and South Africa in 500 AD.
Andes and MesoAmerica (current Mexico). First evidence of organization in domains (chiefdoms) rather than in bands. These are groups of villages that accept the authority of a single powerful man. It is generally an intermediate step between tribe and kingdom. In Mesopotamia this step occurred 4500 years earlier.
Thanks to the technology of the three-hulled canoes connected, on the high seas, the islands of Polynesia and Micronesia in the Pacific Ocean are reached and populated by the Austronesians, coming first from the island of Formosa, present-day Taiwan (3500 BC), then gradually moving to