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in 500 million years

in 500 million years

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The atmospheric warming caused by the Sun accelerates the action of atmospheric agents, displacing the carbon dioxide CO2 from the atmosphere to the oceans. The CO2 concentration is lowered so much that photosynthesis becomes impossible and most plants become extinct on Earth.

2100

2100

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The pH of the oceans will drop to 7.8. It was 8.2 in 1800, at the beginning of the 21st century. it’s 8.1. A decline of only 0.1 points, being the logarithmic scale, means an acidity of 30% greater. In 2100 the oceans will be

2100

2100

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The saturation state of the oceans with respect to aragonite (the most soluble form of calcium carbonate) drops to 3.0. It was 4.0 in the 1800s. The energy required for calcification increases, and the corals’ calcification process dramatically collapses as a result.

February 5, 2021

February 5, 2021

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Israel, the first country in terms of progress in the mass vaccination campaign, reaches 2/3 of the population vaccinated with the first dose, and half of them with even the second dose. But what is more important is that we see a marked decline in

12-dic-20

12-dic-20

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The American Food & Drugs Administration (FDA) approves the use of Pfizer’s Covid-19 vaccine. A few days earlier, Great Britain, Canada, Bahrain and Saudi Arabia had already approved it.

December 6, 2020

December 6, 2020

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Singapore is the first state in the world to approve the sale of lab-grown meat. Gives the green light to lab-grown chicken meat from America’s East Just, created without slaughtering any animals, but by growing animal muscle stem cells in the lab. According to theoretical

November 29, 2020

November 29, 2020

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The British firm DeepMind reveals the solution to a large part of the problem of how to predict how proteins fold in 3D to take shape, a shape that is crucial for determining their properties, including those for developing new medicines. Everything is done with

November 25, 2020

November 25, 2020

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The Russian anti-Covid-19 vaccine Sputnik-V, developed by the Gamaleya Research Institute, is 95% effective according to studies carried out in Russia, Venezuela, Belarus on 22 thousand people in the first phase and 19 thousand in the second.

November 23, 2020

November 23, 2020

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The Anglo-Swedish company AstraZeneca announces that its anti-Covid-19 vaccine developed with Oxford University is ending the final stages of clinical trials with an efficacy of 70% (as an average of 2 different methods of administration, one with efficacy 90% on 2741 people, and the other

November 9, 2020

November 9, 2020

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The American company Pfizer announces that the anti-Covid-19 vaccine it is testing has completed the final stages of clinical trials, and has been shown to be at least 90% effective.

11-mar-19

11-mar-19

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In the north of Myanmar (formerly Burma), Lida Xing (of the China University of Geosciences, Beijing), documents the discovery of the skull of a tiny dinosaur-bird (Oculidentavis khaungraae) weighing only 2 grams, skull well preserved in amber with different soft tissues. It is very rare

apr-19

apr-19

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American scientists are able to restore some brain functions in pig brains 4 to 10 hours after the animal’s head has been severed.

mar-19

mar-19

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Manchester University researchers believe they have identified the odor of Parkinson’s, and in particular the molecules on the skin linked to its early development, potentially allowing its identification even years before its full-blown manifestation.

January 27, 2019

January 27, 2019

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Studies by Cortexyme and several universities come to the conclusion that the bacteria found in the diseased brain of Azlheimer are not the result of the disease, but the cause. It is the Porphyromonas gingivalis, which initially arises in the gums, and then with age

2016

2016

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Africa. A census of the continent’s elephant population counts them just over 350,000. In 1979 there were 1.3 million, 10 million in 1973, 26 million in the 16th century.

29-dic-15

29-dic-15

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University of North Carolina. The molecular “killer” that kills movement neurons in many patients affected by Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) has been unmasked: it is an extremely unstable and reactive aggregate of proteins, which “poisons” the central nervous system leading to paralysis. The study, published

1-ago-12

1-ago-12

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Monsanto awards a $ 1 billion lawsuit in a dispute with DuPont over genetically modified grains. Monsanto, of St. Louis, accused Pioneer Hi-Bred (later DuPont Pioneer) based in Johnston, Iowa, of infringing Monsanto’s patents on Roundup Ready Crops, which are resistant to the herbicide glyphosate.

March 5, 2011

March 5, 2011

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Richard Hoover, an astrobiologist working for NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center, discovers potential small fossilized life forms on several rare meteorites, called CI1 carbonaceous chondrites. Some of the fossils unearthed resemble the bacteria on Earth called Velox Titanospirillum. Others are instead, they are completely unknown,

2-dic-10

2-dic-10

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A research funded by NASA, near the salt lake of MonLake, demonstrates the possibility of life to thrive even in abundance of arsenic, which in the bacterium GFAJ-1 incredibly replaces phosphorus as the fundamental building block of life. Arsenic was first considered a poison for

May 24, 2010

May 24, 2010

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David Sands of Montana State University discovers that the bacterium Pseudomonas Syringae is the trigger for the crystallization of water droplets, which then fall as rain. In fact, Pseudomonas Syringae is found on plants all over the world. When it ends up in the atmosphere

23-dic-09

23-dic-09

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Kim Peek dies, the “idiot savant” of the film “Rain Man” played in 1988 by Dustin Hoffman. He was 58 years old and suffered from the so-called “sage syndrome” from birth: a very rare neurological dysfunction that occurs in 10% of people with autism. Kim

ott-09

ott-09

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The Goddard Space Flight Center of NASA announces that glycine, one of the 20 amino acids, has been found in the powders taken by the StarDust probe in comet Wild 2. This was suspected for some time but this is the first experimental conclusion.

2009

2009

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The Car4 receptor, which senses carbon dioxide in carbonated drinks, is discovered in the cells for the sour taste, located on the tongue.

29-set-08

29-set-08

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The scientific journal Current Biology publishes the first analyzes on an experiment in a colony of tardigrades that were brought into the vacuum of circumterrestrial space and exposed to direct ionizing solar radiation. The Russian Foton M3 probe is used in collaboration with ESA. The

2008

2008

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In the period 1948 – 1973 the Soviet Union, despite its formal adherence to the 1946 treaty for the regulation of whaling, killed 180,000 whales more than the formally accepted limit. The Eubalena japonica (North Pacific Right Whale) for example is almost exterminated and extinct,

set-07

set-07

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The Russian Foton M3 probe in collaboration with ESA, brings into orbit a colony of tardigrades that will be brought into the vacuum of circumterrestrial space and exposed to direct ionizing solar radiation. The vacuum will have almost no effect on them, while ionizing radiation

2007

2007

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University of Saskatchewan, Canada. Professor Ekaterina Dadachova, studies some specimens Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Cryptococcus neoformans and Wangiella dermatitidis, three species of fungi taken from reactor number 4 of the Lenin power plant in Chernobyl, Ukraine, discovering their ability to grow faster in radiation-rich environments than others

mar-06

mar-06

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Adwaita dies, a giant Aldabra tortoise that was the pet of the Clive of India, introduced in the Calcutta Zoo in 1876. She was born in 1756, 250 years earlier.

2005

2005

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The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves the use of Brain Pacemakers as a cure for depression.

2005 – 2016

2005 – 2016

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The number of malaria cases declines by as much as 75%. Between 2014 and 2016 alone, 582 million mosquito nets treated with insecticide are delivered, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. The journal Nature estimates that 450 million cases were averted between 2000 and 2015.

2005

2005

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An article in Nature shows that liquid water loses memory of the correlations in its structure in less than 50 femtoseconds (or 0.00000000000005 seconds): a very short memory … In 1988, again in Nature, an article by the French scientist was published Jacques Benveniste in

September 30, 2004

September 30, 2004

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Researchers from the National Science Museum of Japan and the Ogasawara Whale Watching Association take the first photos of a giant squid alive in its natural environment, at a depth of 900m. They find it following the route of sperm whales, their main predators.

2002

2002

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Geobiologist John Parkes examines mud samples taken from great depths on the ocean floor east of Newfoundland. Found (live) prokaryotes have a division rate of once every century. Each organism could be several million years old.

February 17, 2001

February 17, 2001

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NASA finds other signs of fossil life on two other Martian meteorites: Nakhla and Shergotty, 1.3 billion years old and 170 million years old respectively, and confirms the signs of life on ALH84001; it also confirms the presence of underground liquid water on Europa and

dic-00

dic-00

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Deborah Kelley’s team discovers a hydrothermal field called Lost City near the North Atlantic Ridge at 30 degrees North, literally invaded by micro and macro-organisms of all kinds living in these methane and hydrogen sources; the structure is characterized by 60m high towers based on

20-ott-00

20-ott-00

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Russell Vreeland and colleagues at West Chester University in Pennsylvania announce that they have resurrected Bacillus Permians bacteria found 600m underground in Carlsbad, New Mexico: reactivating in the presence of water after 250MLN years, surviving all this time and 2 mass extinctions as spores in

1999

1999

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The national experimentation in Italy of the Di Bella treatment ends. It involved 1155 patients (386 experimental and 769 observational) affected by various cancers. 97.5% of patients who died or withdrew from the study. In none of the patients the disappearance of the tumor masses

1998

1998

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Another population of Coelacanths (Latimeria Chalumnae, a crossopterygian fish thought to be extinct 100 million years ago) is discovered off the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia.

ago-98

ago-98

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For the first time in the African jungle, a murderous and premeditated group behavior by schimpanzees is observed, a peculiarity that was believed to be typical only of the human race

1998

1998

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The hoax of a link between vaccines and autism begins to spread. Andrew Wakefield, an English doctor, publishes an article in The Lancet on the subject. The article will then be recognized as not scientifically correct (no control cases were used) and withdrawn, but the

giu-98

giu-98

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Ji Qiang, Ji Shu-An, Philip Currie and Mark Norell publish in Nature an article on the two feathered dinosaurs Protoarchaeopteryx and Caudipteryx, probably an intermediate stage between scales and feathers.

mar-98

mar-98

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National experimentation of Di Bella treatment begins in Italy. It involves 1155 patients (386 experimental and 769 observational) affected by various cancers. It closed in 1999 with 97.5% of patients who died or withdrew from the study. In none of the patients the disappearance of

1998 – 2005

1998 – 2005

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Iodized salt is banned in India. It is obtained by adding iodine to kitchen salt, to prevent congenital malformations and mental retardation, caused by iodine deficiency. In India, erroneously, it is considered an interference by Western science, which also causes tumors and “bad mood”, and

1997

1997

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A very strong underwater sound is recorded off the coast of South America by microphones deposited on the seabed. The sound is called Bloop and is much louder than even the heaviest whale can emit. This has given rise to speculation that even larger beings

1997

1997

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Tokyo hospital announces discovery of staphylococcus aureus species that resists all known antibiotics

ott-96

ott-96

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Feathered dinosaur fossils found. Confirmation is presented at the American Museum of Natural History in New York. The species is called Sinosauropteryx (Chinese winged lizard).

1996

1996

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The Vatican promotes the Darwinian evolution from “hypothesis” to “theory of science”

1996

1996

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Monsanto researchers in France, looking for molecules similar to aspartame but without its allergenicity, discover Neotame, 8000 times sweeter than sugar

1996

1996

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First recognized cases of the deadly variant of Creutzfeld Jakob disease (vCjd) thought to be a consequence of BSE (mad cow)

1993

1993

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Fossil Record 2 is published on the internet with 7189 families of extinct animals and plants and 1083 families of extinct insects

1990

1990

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Robert Folk of the University of Texas at Austin, draws scientific attention to tiny spheroidal and ovoid objects found in the sedimentary rocks found in the hot springs of Viterbo; it could in fact be fossil nanobacteria, calcified remains of organisms 30nm in size (while

1990

1990

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A commission of inquiry condemned the Tuskgee experiment carried out in the health center of Macon County, Alabama, from 1932. In practice, the evolution of untreated syphilis was analyzed in 600 black farmer patients, 399 of whom were ill. People are injected with a serum,

1989

1989

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American biologists Thomas Cech and Sidney Altman receive the Nobel Prize for their studies carried out in the 1980s, which led to the discovery that certain types of RNA can behave like enzymes towards themselves by cutting themselves in two and mending themselves, that is,

1989

1989

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In the Southern Hemisphere the population of blue whales is reduced, by the relentless hunting, to only 500 specimens, of the 250 thousand that were at the beginning of the 20th century. Whale bodies are used to make margarine, soaps, lubricants, explosives (the glycerin in

June 28, 1988

June 28, 1988

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French scientist Jacques Benveniste publishes a study in the journal Nature in which he believes that homeopathy triggers a reaction in some blood cells. However, it will not be possible to repeat the results of the study in other laboratories. James Randi, a famous illusionist

1988

1988

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The American Gertrude Belle Elion receives the Nobel Prize for having developed an innovative method for the synthesis of medicines. It thus contributes to saving 5MLN of lives (estimate updated at the beginning of the 21st century)

February 15, 1988

February 15, 1988

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Richard Lenski of the University of Michigan in East Lansing begins a ten-year experiment with Escherichia coli bacteria, which he allows to evolve under constant conditions. In 2010 it produced more than 50,000 generations. This is the Long-term Evolution Experiment started with 12 strains of

1988

1988

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Olavi Kajander of the University of Kuopio in Finland notes ultra-small particles in the interior of many mammalian cells; about 50nm large, they are about one tenth of the smallest known ordinary bacteria; Kajander will then hypothesize that they are living organisms that thrive in

1987

1987

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Weiskrantz discovers that the visual cortex (located in the occipital part – behind – of the brain – brain -) is not the only region responsible for sight: there are other small areas that allow the patient to conjecture what he is seeing.

1986

1986

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Based on the discoveries of American biologists Thomas Cech and Sidney Altman (certain types of RNA can multiply without the help of proteins) Walter Gilbert hypothesizes the RNA World, i.e. first the birth of RNA, then of proteins

October 27, 1985

October 27, 1985

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German epidemiologist Andreas Roland Grüntzig dies in a plane crash. He had invented angioplasty to expand clogged arteries and thus contributed to saving 15MLN of lives (estimate updated at the beginning of the 21st century).

1985

1985

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Whittington lists 22 species of Burgess shale in his category of organisms not found in any Phylum or class of Arthropoda

1985

1985

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Freeman Dyson (Princeton) theorizes that life may have had two independent origins: a primordial life form capable of metabolizing proteins but unable to reproduce effectively; the other efficient in reproduction but without metabolism; the two life forms would then merge (symbiosis)

1984

1984

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American Robert Gallo and Frenchman Luc Montagnier simultaneously announce the discovery of the AIDS virus

80s

80s

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The paleontologist Peter Sheehan of the Milwaukee Public Museum, decides to conduct a systematic search for fossils with 200 volunteers in a well-known area already trodden by fossil hunters: the Hell Creek Formation in Montana; the meticulous research lasts three years and leads to triple

1983

1983

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Barry Marshall, a doctor from Perth, Western Australia, finds that many stomach cancers and most ulcers are caused by a bacterium called Helicobacter Pylori

1981

1981

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David Hubel, Torsten Wiesel receive the Nobel Prize for showing that visual information is processed even before it reaches the visual cortex in the occipital (back) part of the brain (brain)