The universe (if it were stable all this time – and we have no reason to believe it is – and infinite in the spatial dimension – and it could very well be) is old enough to have a 50% chance that the light of an object completely identical to our Universe. This is the consequence of an intuition already had by Friedrich Nietzsche: nothing is unique, everything has an unlimited number of copies, whatever has a probability of more than zero to happen must happen infinite times.
Googolplex (1 followed by a googol of zeros); even using a proton for each zero, it could not be written with all the matter in the universe
5th Ackermann number (of the type n ^ (n, n times)): cannot be written on a sheet of paper as big as the whole universe … … even if exponential notation is used
The universe (if it were stable all this time – and we have no reason to believe it is – and infinite in spatial size – and it could very well be) is old enough to have a 50% chance that the light of an object completely identical to our Earth. This is the consequence of an intuition already had by Friedrich Nietzsche: nothing is unique, everything has an unlimited number of copies, whatever has a probability of more than zero to happen must happen infinite times.
The universe (if it were stable all this time – and we have no reason to believe it is – and infinite in the spatial dimension – and it could very well be) is old enough to have a 50% chance that the light of a living being very similar to us. This is the consequence of an intuition already had by Friedrich Nietzsche: nothing is unique, everyone has an unlimited number of copies, whatever has a probability higher than zero to happen must happen infinite times.
10 ^ (3 638 334 640 024): 4th Ackermann number (of the type n ^ (n, n times))
o 4096 ^ 4096 ns: time taken by a 1GHz Turing machine (doing 1 instruction every 1ns) with 6 states, to write all the “1s” it can write, according to the Busy Beaver Problem. Busy Beaver problem: given a Turing machine that stops, how many “1’s” can it write before it stops? If the Turing machine in question has n states, this number is denoted S (n) and grows faster than any computable function f (n). If the Turing machine has 4 states, it writes 13 ones, if it has 5 states it writes at least 4098 ones (Buntrock-Marxen beaver, 1989), if it has 6 states it writes a huge number of ones, not yet calculated but surely> 4096 ^ 4096 (MW Green theorem, 1964).
If matter were stable all this time (but it isn’t …), then everything would be Fe56
The e + positrons created by the p + protons meet the e- electrons and turn into energy. At this point the 10 ^ 79 particles that made up the universe should be energy (…) Entropy – the Second Law of Thermodynamics – is the relentless winner. The uniform Chaos. It was good while it lasted …
A Googol of years (term coined by the mathematician Edward Kasner at the age of 9). After a googol of years, the temperature of the Universe is an almost uniform value very close to absolute zero (0K).
o 64 ^ 64 seconds: time taken by a supercomputer (which does 1 iteration of the algorithm every 1ns) to solve the Longest Path Problem (LPP) between 64 cities (for the Shortest Path Problem n ^ 2 iterations with the algorithm are enough by Dijkstra, 1959)
The huge galactic Black Holes of original mass equal to several billion solar masses also evaporate, such as the one that lay at the center of Milkomeda, the galaxy born from the merger of (our) Milky Way and Andromeda.
Galactic Black Holes of original mass equal to a few million solar masses also evaporate
The first big black holes evaporate
Quantum tunneling liquefies matter
The decay of protons lowers the atomic number of atoms in the Universe: even white dwarfs are (re) transformed into hydrogen.
The decay of protons lowers the atomic number of atoms in the Universe: the metal nuclei of the remaining rocky planets are transformed into hydrogen.
Star fuel runs out
The 10 ^ 80 protons p + decay into positron e + (which annihilate with electrons and – producing gamma rays) and into pions (which also decay into gamma rays)
The Black Holes finish devouring the galaxies
Half-life of Bismuth: 50% of Bismuth decays. Bismuth will be the last element to disappear.
The galaxies gradually evaporate due to the gravitational sling effect caused by the random close encounters between the stars.
Red dwarfs become black dwarfs, real stellar corpses.
Star formation ceases
The electromagnetic radiation of the stars is stretched by the accelerated expansion (by dark energy) of the Universe and the wavelength of the photons becomes larger than the visible Universe
The other galaxies become invisible due to the red shift
The monks of the Towers of Hanoi of the Benares Temple finish composing the Tower of Bramah (if they were quick enough to move one disc per second on average) and the Universe according to the Hindus ends
Due to the red shift, the gigantic Virgo Cluster falls beyond our horizon of visibility and Milkomeda remains the only observable galaxy.
The Universe is 1000 times bigger than today
In the theory conceived in 2003 by Robert Caldwell, the force of dark energy grows so dramatically that it soon disintegrates matter itself until the Big Rip in 20 billion years. The Theory does not find much credit in the scientific environment.
The core of the Sun runs out of Helium. Gravity prevails and causes a new collapse of the core triggering violent and unstable mergers. A series of 4 convulsions occur, each separated by 100,000 years. The Sun reaches the frightening brightness of 5200 times the current one. They are the gasps of the agony of our star. The external layers that have now been expelled to the outside of the internal planetary system are illuminated several times. The Sun starts to become a white dwarf gradually dispersing the remaining heat into space.
The Sun’s core compresses and heats up to 100 million degrees. The heat expands into the outer layers turning it into a swollen red giant 250 times larger and 2700 times brighter than today. The Earth reaches the solar atmosphere and soon the friction makes it fall on the Sun literally “cremating it”. End of the planet Earth.
The Sun’s hydrogen shell ignites and our star becomes twice its current size
The Sun (and the Solar System), if not the Milky Way did not collide with Andromeda, would leave the arm of Orion and enter the arm of Perseus, towards the Galactic Center
Second encounter-impact between the Milky Way and Andromeda. At this point, the two galaxies are an ellipsoidal cluster of nearly 1,000 billion stars – an elliptical galaxy that TJ Cox and Abi Loeb of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics call Milkomeda.
The central Black Hole of the Milky Way goes from a few million to a few billion solar masses thanks to a good feast of stars caused by the instability caused by the first impact with Andromeda. Eventually the object cyclically transforms into a very bright quasar for 10 million years, alternating periods of quiet of about 100 million years.
In the merger of our Galaxy (Milky Way) and that of Andromeda, the Sun has a 12% chance of ending up in the tidal tail and being ejected into the abysses of intergalactic space, a 3% chance of being incorporated by Andromeda in the subsequent bounces until the merger. complete in Milkomeda, 40% of ending up in the galaxy’s core and 45% of being slung into the outer halo.
First encounter-impact between the Milky Way and Andromeda. Gravity gives rise to rings and ripples in the distribution of the stars and expels a gigantic arc with more than a billion stars into the intergalactic vacuum.
End of the drying up of the oceans: all the water that was on the surface is filtered into the subsoil and into the mantle which is no longer hot enough to re-emit it to the surface in the form of steam. Even life in the oceans is extinguished (because there are no more oceans …)
The atmospheric warming caused by the Sun accelerates the action of atmospheric agents, displacing the carbon dioxide CO2 from the atmosphere to the oceans. The CO2 concentration is lowered so much that photosynthesis becomes impossible and most plants become extinct on Earth.
The universe, considered with discrete time and matter with a discrete quantum structure and discrete states, i.e. considered as a gigantic computer that processes information (qubits) has processed about 10 ^ 123 binary operations in the 4E17s available since the Big Bang, contains 10 ^ 72 joule of energy (the link between energy and clock time expressed by the Margolus-Levitin theorem t> = h / 4E) and 10 ^ 92 bits of ordinary matter (in any case no more than 10 ^ 123 bits of dark matter), memory considered as Entropy = Energy / Temperature = Temperature ^ 3 because when the entropy is maximum, that is, I have to code the position and speed of each particle to describe the state, I use all the “memory” available
The supercontinent Pangea Ultima is formed from the union of Austro-Antarctica-Eurafrasia and the Americas; the hypothesis is by Christopher Scotese
The Sun ends its next orbit around the galactic center
The Austro-Antarctica-Eurafrasia supercontinent is formed, from the union of Austro-Eurafrasia and Antartica
Approximate estimated time of the disappearance of the rings of Saturn, inexorably attracted to the planet and precipitated on it.
The supercontinent Austro-Eurafrasia is formed, from the union of Eurafrasia and Australia
The supercontinent Eurafrasia is formed, from the union of Africa, Europe and Asia
Next passage of the Great Comet of January 1910. In 1910 it was very bright, visible even to the naked eye and during the day.
The Pioneer 11 reaches the first Sagittarius star
Pioneer 10 reaches Aldebaran in Taurus
Comets launched towards the inner Solar System by the passage of Scholz’s binary star, whiz around the Sun, threatening the Earth as well. Scholz’s binary star was discovered in 2013 AD and is composed of a red dwarf and a brown dwarf, both of which are very weak in terms of luminosity and mass. The Scholz binary passed in 68000 BC to just 52000 AU (Astronomical Units = Earth-Sun distances) from the Sun (0.8 light years). They therefore certainly interacted with the outer layers of the Oort Cloud, a warehouse of dormant comets, launching a certain number (perhaps several millions) towards the long journey (a couple of million years!) Towards the interior of the Solar System, while others they may have been captured and still others launched into interstellar space or even eventually into extra-galactic space.
The red dwarf star Gliese 710 passes just 1 light year from the Sun, interfering with the Oort Cloud and launching a few million comets towards the inner Solar System and therefore also the Earth. At this point Gliese 710 blazes in the sky with the magnitude equivalent to a star in the Orion belt currently. The long journey to the inner solar system will last a couple of million years.
850 light-years away, the (now) blue super-giant Rigel, in the constellation of Orion, explodes in a spectacular type II supernova that illuminates the night sky on Earth like 100 full moons concentrated in one spot. Before Rigel, the other very bright star of Orion, Betelgeuse (620 light-years away from us), may have already exploded in a type II supernova, but given its current instability it is difficult to establish how soon it will happen (thousands of years or millions).
The neutron star (100 000 billion times denser than steel) born from the explosion of the supernova RX J185635-3754 passes (at 100Km / s) 170 light years from Earth
Voyager 2 passes 4.3 light years from Sirius
Comet Hyakutake’s next passage. The previous time had passed near the Earth in 1996.
Voyager 1 comes within 1.6 light years of the star AC + 79 38888 of Camelopardis and is captured by its gravity (it is currently in the direction of the constellation Ofphiuco, or the direction of the Solar Apex: the direction in which the Sun is pointing in the its motion around the galactic center)
The radio signal sent by Frank Drake from Arecibo reaches the globular cluster M13, consisting of 300,000 stars
Passage of the Flaugergues Comet, also mentioned by Tolstoy in “War and Peace”. It had passed in 1811. It should come back in the year 4800.
Passage of Hale Bopp’s comet, near the Earth. It had passed in 1997 (I saw it).
End of the current European-American era according to Rudolf Steiner. Anthroposophy has its own concept of history: according to Rudolf Steiner our present age falls in the post-Atlantic period, since in his vision the disaster that he claims to have struck Atlantis in 7227 BC is a significant turning point in the history of man. This post-Atlantic period is divided by Steiner into 7 epochs, the current one being the European-American Epoch.
End of the current cycle of the Julian calendar (julian date) introduced by Scaligero; in our calendar in reality the date will not coincide due to the changes introduced in it
The pH of the oceans will drop to 7.8. It was 8.2 in 1800, at the beginning of the 21st century. it’s 8.1. A decline of only 0.1 points, being the logarithmic scale, means an acidity of 30% greater. In 2100 the oceans will be 150% more acidic than before the Industrial Revolution. This will cause the probable collapse of marine life and the extinction of most of the current living species. The Sixth Mass Extinction. Which will cause the extinction of 24% of living species (minimum 9%, maximum 32%) over the course of a century. The extinction rate could be even higher over several centuries, but it will not reach rates comparable with the other 5 mass extinctions (even reaching 96% of living species), but it will still be higher of other minor Mass Extinctions (such as that of 185MLN years ago and 55MLN years ago).
The saturation state of the oceans with respect to aragonite (the most soluble form of calcium carbonate) drops to 3.0. It was 4.0 in the 1800s. The energy required for calcification increases, and the corals’ calcification process dramatically collapses as a result.
The signal sent by Yvan Dutil and Stephane Dumas, financed by the Houston company Encounter 2001 Llc, with the Evpatoria radio telescope in Ukraine, reaches 4 solar-type stars
Passage of Halley’s comet, after 75 years, near the Earth. Keep the evening free on the calendar!
Despite all his warnings and intentions to look only to the past, in the last years of his life, Isaac Newton does not resist the temptation to stretch his gaze until the moment of the Last Judgment with this weak justification: “I indicate this period of time not to want with certainty when the end of the world comes, but for the sole reason that there is little reason to expect it sooner. (…) “. But perhaps even his will be considered in the same way as a “rash conjecture”, since the date he foresees is approaching: between 2060 and 2374, depending on how prophecies are interpreted, such as the destruction of Jerusalem or the beginning of the supremacy of the Popes.
Pope Francis visits Iraq. This is the first papal visit to this country. In Baghdad he meets President Barham Salih. Then he flies to Najaf (where he meets the Shiite Ayatollah Al-Sistani), Mosul, Erbil (where he meets the president of the Iraqi Kuridtan Nechirvan Barzani), Nassiriya, Ur of the Chaldeans (city of Abraham, the father of the 3 monotheistic faiths) to a prayer with the representatives of other religions.
Israel declares itself out of the Covid-19 pandemic, with 99% of the population vaccinated with the first dose and almost 50% with the second.
The American Food & Drugs Administration (FDA) approves the use of Johnson & Johnson’s single-dose Covid-19 vaccine.
Al-Qa’im, Syria. Two American F-15s hit 11 targets, buildings and trucks in Al-Qa’im in Syria, loaded with ammunition and explosives, on the Iraqi border, on the Euphrates, targets linked to the pro-Iranian militias. Ten days earlier in Erbil, in Iraqi Kurdistan, pro-Iranian militias had hit an American base with missiles, killing a civilian contractor and wounding some soldiers, including an American.
NASA’s Perseverance mission makes its entry into the Martian atmosphere, the so-called 7 minutes of terror. Everything goes according to plan, and the big rover rests gently on the ground, with the Ingenuity drone helicopter aboard. A photo of the rover is also taken while, supported by cables, it is lowered to the surface, and finally a photo of the probe entering the atmosphere, with the parachute already extended, photo taken by the Mars Recoinassance Orbiter (MRO) probe in Martian orbit.
Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan. Pro-Iranian militias hit a US base with missiles. A civilian contractor was killed and some soldiers, including an American, were injured. After an investigation also carried out with Iraqi support, ten days later the United States will respond by bombing 11 targets, buildings and trucks to Al-Qa’im in Syria, loaded with ammunition and explosives, on the Iraqi border, on the Euphrates, targets linked to the militias pro-Iranian.
Rome. The former governor of the European Central Bank, Mario Draghi, dissolves the reserve and presents his new government, in broad agreement.
The Tianwen-1 mission, with the rover on board, enters orbit around Mars.
The Amal (Hope – Hope) probe of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) enters the Martian orbit.
Israel, the first country in terms of progress in the mass vaccination campaign, reaches 2/3 of the population vaccinated with the first dose, and half of them with even the second dose. But what is more important is that we see a marked decline in Covid-19 cases, a clear reversal of the trend compared to the previous weeks.
Burma (Myanmar). The Burmese armed forces carry out a coup and arrest Aung San Suu Kyi, whose party, the National League for Democracy, had just won the legislative elections, against the Union of Solidarity and Development Party, close to the army. A few days later, China will veto a UN resolution condemning it.
Joe Biden, takes office as the 46th president of the United States. In the following 2 days he signed 25 executive orders. Trump had signed 25 in 90 days, Obama in several months. George W Bush took even longer. Biden intends to carry out a U-turn of several previous policies, including in particular an aggressive response to Covid-19, the reopening of flights with the Arab countries stopped by Trump, the re-adhesion to the climate treaty, the stop of construction of the wall with Mexico.
Moscow. Alexei Navalny, one of Putin’s main opponents, was arrested at the Sheremetyevo airport by riot police forces after his hospitalization in Berlin following his poisoning in Russia, and was immediately tried in a station. police.
Richard Branson’s Virgin launches a satellite into orbit from a high-flying plane.
United States. The House calls for President Trump’s impeachement for inciting the assault on Congress the seventh earlier. This is the first time in the history of the United States that a president has been “impeached” twice in his presidential term.
United States. In a dramatic session at 3 am, after having suspended the session for the entry of pro-Trump protesters, Congress, chaired by VP Pence, formalizes the victory of the elections by Joe Biden. The Democrats also win the two seats in Georgia, and thus reach parity in the Senate with the Republicans, but with the vote of the new VP Kamala Harris the dem have a majority of 1, a majority that they also have in the House.
United States. In the hours in which on Capitol Hill takes place the ceremony of formalization of the vote count that ratifies the election of Democrat Joe Biden, and while the Democratic Party also wins the majority of the Senate by winning the two seats in Georgia, a crowd of people, responding to the encouragement of President Trump, he storms Capitol Hill, and manages to get inside. During the hours of chaos, up to the curfew imposed by the authorities for 6:00 pm, a woman shot by an armed guard inside Capitol Hill is killed, and 52 people are arrested. A policeman is also killed by the crowd and others are injured. In the following days, hundreds of arrests will be made of people who participated in the assault on Congress. It is also revealed that some of them intend to kidnap VP Pence and Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi. Pence escapes capture for a few seconds, brought to safety by secret service men, while a policeman deflects the crowd upstairs. On this sad day, the United States shows the world the fragility of democracy, including the American one, which, since the time of Toqueville, was taken as an example in the West.
The yes comes from the company meetings in Stellantis, the new giant in the automotive sector, born from the marriage between FCA and PSA. It is the fourth manufacturer in the world. The headquarters are in the Netherlands. The first shareholder is Exor (Agnelli family), followed by the Peugeot family. The president is John Elkann and the VP is Robert Peugeot. Includes 14 brands: Abarth, Alfa Romeo, Chrysler, Citroën, Dodge, DS, Fiat, Jeep, Lancia, Maserati, Opel, Peugeot, Ram and Vauxhall.
The negotiators of the European Union and those of Beijing, after 7 years of close and complex negotiations, find the political agreement that allows foreign investments in production, including electric vehicles, telecommunications and private hospitals. The announcement is made by the President of the European Commission Ursula von der Leyen, and by the Chinese President Xi Jinping. It opens up the possibility for Europeans to go and do business in China, under the same conditions as the companies of the People’s Republic.
The President of the European Commission Ursula von der Leyen and the Prime Minister of the UK Boris Johnson announce the agreement in extremis (actually after the deadline) for the commercial terms of the end of the transhistoric period of Brexit, a period that ends on 31 December 2020 .
United States. The American Congress reaches an agreement for a mega-package of 900 billion USD as aid against the pandemic from Covid-19, for business, for unemployment. A following step of 1400 billion USD to finance the following 9 months of government remains under discussion.
United States. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo reveals a cyber attack by the Russian side, ongoing for months, against the digital infrastructure, managed by the company, SolarWinds, which manages the American military nuclear apparatus. It is presented as the worst case of cyberwarfare in US history. The targets were also others, including Great Britain.
The American Food & Drugs Administration (FDA) approves the use of Moderna’s Covid-19 vaccine.
Frank Wilzek ??of MIT proves the existence of the “Anyons”, the third realm of elementary particles, in addition to the “Fermions” and the “Bosons”. The Anyons, are only two-dimensional, and form at very low temperatures. They are actually quasi-particles, that is, they have the properties of particles, but they can only be observed as a collective behavior with other particles fermions or bosons. They have the particularity that their orbit takes several turns to recover the original state, and this makes them ideal as a memory component for quantum computers; this attracts Microsoft’s investments.
The American Food & Drugs Administration (FDA) approves the use of Pfizer’s Covid-19 vaccine. A few days earlier even Great Britain, Canada, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia had already approved it.
Iran. The Iranian journalist Ruhollah Zam is hanged for posting on a social network a few years earlier posts inciting the anti-government protest.
Israel, after having normalized relations with the Arab Emirates, Bahrain and Sudan, is also doing so with Morocco.
At the age of 64, Paolo Rossi, nicknamed “Pablito”, the main author of Italy’s world success at the 1982 World Cup in Spain, dies, against all odds.
Boca Chica, southern tip of Texas. A prototype of Elon Musk’s Space X StarShip takes off, performs the attitude control operations at 12 km altitude, glides with a lifting body profile, tries to land in the correct point, but at the last moment two of the three engines shut down and the carrier crashes.
Singapore is the first state in the world to approve the sale of lab-grown meat. Gives the green light to lab-grown chicken meat from America’s East Just, created without slaughtering any animals, but by growing animal muscle stem cells in the lab. According to theoretical studies, two months of in vitro meat production could produce 50,000 tons of meat, starting from 10 pork muscle cells. Eat Just meat will be sold as kibble, with the same price as the premium chicken.
The reentry probe of the Japanese mission Hayabusa-2 successfully lands in Australia and its precious Ryugu meteoritic soil content is brought to Japan for analysis.
Ocean of Storms, Luna. The Chinese Chang’e 5 probe lands successfully, takes a sample of a couple of kg of lunar soil, restarts and automatically joins with the mother probe in orbit.
The number of Covid-19 cases counted in the world exceeds 60 million. The real ones (uncounted) probably hit the billion according to the WHO. The number of deaths counted surpasses one and a half million, but the real number is probably much higher. Europe is ending the passage of the second wave, while the United States has continuously increasing cases, albeit with three peaks, since the beginning of the Pandemic. In similar situations are Brazil, India and Russia.