## BigBang + 4 ^ (4 ^ 4 ^ 4 ^ 4) years

5th Ackermann number (of the type n ^ (n, n times)): cannot be written on a sheet of paper as big as the whole universe … … even if exponential notation is used

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BigBang + 4 ^ (4 ^ 4 ^ 4 ^ 4) years
## BigBang + 4 ^ (4 ^ 4 ^ 4 ^ 4) years

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5th Ackermann number (of the type n ^ (n, n times)): cannot be written on a sheet of paper as big as the whole universe … … even if exponential notation is used

BigBang + 10 ^ (10 ^ 100) years
## BigBang + 10 ^ (10 ^ 100) years

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Googolplex (1 followed by a googol of zeros); even using a proton for each zero, it could not be written with all the matter in the universe

BigBang + 3 ^ (3 ^ 3 ^ 3) years
## BigBang + 3 ^ (3 ^ 3 ^ 3) years

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10 ^ (3 638 334 640 024): 4th Ackermann number (of the type n ^ (n, n times))

BigBang + 10 ^ 100 years
## BigBang + 10 ^ 100 years

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A Googol of years (term coined by the mathematician Edward Kasner at the age of 9). After a googol of years, the temperature of the Universe is an almost uniform value very close to absolute zero (0K).

20-Oct-20
## 20-Oct-20

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Researchers from Caltech and Purdue University reveal that they have solved in the Fourier domain, with Artificial Intelligence algorithms (Neural Newtorks), a particular type of Partial Differential Equations (PDE): the Navier-Stokes used to describe motion of incompressible fluids, much more efficiently than with traditional techniques

March 19, 2007
## March 19, 2007

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The American Institute of Mathematics with the help of the super-computer Sage of Washington University manages to complete, after 4 years of work, the mapping of the E8 to explain its symmetry, it is a 248-dimensional object belonging to a Lie group (the “E8” in

March 14, 2004
## March 14, 2004

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Oxford, England. The day is 3/14, date written in the American style, or pi Greek. Daniel Tammet, autistic with Asperger’s syndrome, recites the first 22514 digits of pi from memory in 5 hours and 9 minutes, without ever making a mistake.

December 3, 2003
## December 3, 2003

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The mathematicians announce that RSA174 has also been capitulated.

July 17, 2003
## July 17, 2003

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Grigori Grisha Perelman sends the third article to ‘www.arXiv.org’; in it he presents a further analytical result that allows him to use the first and less difficult half of his second article to directly prove Poincare’s Conjecture ‘.

April 7, 2003
## April 7, 2003

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In Cambridge, Massachussets, the Russian mathematician Grigori “Grisha” Perelman presents the proof of the Poincare ‘Conjecture, formulated in 1904: every compact and simply connected 3-manifold (on which every closed path can be reduced to a point ) is homeomorphic (ie topologically identical) to the 3-sphere;

March 10, 2003
## March 10, 2003

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Grigori Grisha Perelman sends the second article to ‘www.arXiv.org’; in it he corrects the statement of two results reported in the first article (in which he presented the proof of Poincare’s Conjecture ‘), but nevertheless shows that the corrections have no effect on the conclusions

November 11, 2002
## November 11, 2002

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The Russian mathematician Grigori “Grisha” Perelman sends an article to www.arXiv.org in which he presents the proof of the Poincare ‘conjecture, formulated in 1904: every compact and simply connected 3-manifold (on which every closed path can ‘to be reduced to a point) is homeomorphic (i.e.

April 7, 1997
## April 7, 1997

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A bombshell goes around the world: the Riemann hypothesis has been demonstrated! It will then be discovered that it was an April Fool of Prof. Enrico Bombieri, one of the leading researchers involved, at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton.

1997
## 1997

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Mertone Scholes win the Nobel Prize in Economics (Fischer Black died in 1997), for the Black-Scholes equation which describes the price trend of a derivative financial instrument. The formula will then be used and abused, forgetting the conditions of its validity, contributing to the subsequent

June 27, 1996
## June 27, 1996

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Andrew Wiles collects the Wolfskehl prize for having solved Fermat’s Last Theorem, Wolfskehl whose problem saved his life, renewing his passion for life the night before a planned suicide, had opened the competition for the prize on 27 June 1908, worth 100,000 marks. In 1996,

1987
## 1987

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Ingrid Daubechies, Belgian physicist and scholar, at Bell Labs in Murray Hill (New Jersey) discovers the right tool for Wavelet Theory: an entirely tailless mother wavelet (previous attempts, in the early 1980s by Jean Morlet, Alexander Grossman, Yves Meyer, had led to mother wavelets, but

Summer 1986
## Summer 1986

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Ken Ribet and Barry Mazur prove Frey’s conjecture, thus linking the Tanyiama-Shimura conjecture to Fermat’s Last Theorem

1984
## 1984

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The New Zealand mathematician Vaughan Frederick Randal Jones, expert in knot theory, invents the Jones Polynomial, the invariant of knots. This will win him the Fields Medal in 1990. This will pave the way for other node invariants, including the generalization called HOMFLY-PT, from the

1984
## 1984

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The American Robert Axelrod publishes in Science “The Evolution of Cooperation” or a Prisoner Dilemma tournament open to all scholars: each submitted algorithm can cooperate (cooperate) or pass-to-enemy / attack (defect): the winning strategy turns out to be the TIT-FOR-TAT (blow for blow) of prof.

1982
## 1982

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The American William Thurston completes the Geometrization Conjecture: in dimension 3 there are only 8 different geometries, instead of the 3 found in dimension 2. The Geometrization Conjecture implies the Poincare’s Conjecture ‘. Most of the 3 manifolds in 3 space have a hyperbolic structure.

January 14, 1978
## January 14, 1978

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Kurt Godel dies, allowing himself to be killed by hunger. In fact, he suffered from hypochondriacal personality disorders that led him not to eat for fear of being poisoned.

1976
## 1976

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Two University of Illinois mathematicians, Kenneth Appel and Wolfgang Haken, solve the four-color problem. o: Is it possible to draw an imaginative political map with a minimum number of colors greater than four? (without two neighboring countries in more than single points having the same

February 15, 1970
## February 15, 1970

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Jurij Matijasievic finds the last piece of the puzzle and proves Julia Robinson’s assertion and therefore Hilbert’s tenth problem: there is no program that allows us to establish whether any equation has a solution

1970
## 1970

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American mathematician Stephen Cook, while completing his PhD in Computer Science at the University of California at Berkeley, discovers the SAT (Satisfiability) for NP-Complete (Non-deterministic, Polynomially time bounded) problems: solving any NP-complete problem is equivalent to solving any instance of SAT (over 2000 different NP-complete

1956
## 1956

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John Nash became famous by solving the Riemann Immersion Problem. Shortly thereafter he falls into a profound schizophrenic psychosis. The Riemann Immersion Problem: It is possible to immerse every surface, and more generally every manifold with a metric in the Riemannian sense, in some n-dimensional

January 30, 1952
## January 30, 1952

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Raphael Robinson, at Berkeley, writes a program for the Standard Western Automatic Computer (SWAC) which calculates a huge Mersenne prime number (Mersenne’s Primes): 2 ^ 521 – 1. A few hours later it produces an even bigger one: 2 ^ 607 – 1. The same

1950 – 1953
## 1950 – 1953

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John Nash studies Non-Cooperative Game Theory and Bargaining Theory (bargaining theory)

February 14, 1943
## February 14, 1943

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Hilbert dies after a fall in the streets of Göttingen. For the German town, already marked by the Nazi purges, this event marks the end of its role as mecca of mathematics. German mathematics will no longer be what it was.

1933 – 1940
## 1933 – 1940

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Kurt Godel commutes between Vienna and the Princeton Institue for Advanced Study

1931
## 1931

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Kurt Godel’s Theorem: “In every mathematics there are statements that cannot be proved true” published under the title of On Formally Undecidable Propositions of Principia Mathematica and Related Systems; the mathematician John Von Neumann, who was giving a cycle of lectures in America, cancels the