## BigBang + 10 ^ (10 ^ 100) years

Googolplex (1 followed by a googol of zeros); even using a proton for each zero, it could not be written with all the matter in the universe

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BigBang + 10 ^ (10 ^ 100) years
## BigBang + 10 ^ (10 ^ 100) years

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Googolplex (1 followed by a googol of zeros); even using a proton for each zero, it could not be written with all the matter in the universe

BigBang + 4 ^ (4 ^ 4 ^ 4 ^ 4) years
## BigBang + 4 ^ (4 ^ 4 ^ 4 ^ 4) years

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5th Ackermann number (of the type n ^ (n, n times)): cannot be written on a sheet of paper as big as the whole universe … … even if exponential notation is used

BigBang + 3 ^ (3 ^ 3 ^ 3) years
## BigBang + 3 ^ (3 ^ 3 ^ 3) years

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10 ^ (3 638 334 640 024): 4th Ackermann number (of the type n ^ (n, n times))

BigBang + 10 ^ 100 years
## BigBang + 10 ^ 100 years

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A Googol of years (term coined by the mathematician Edward Kasner at the age of 9). After a googol of years, the temperature of the Universe is an almost uniform value very close to absolute zero (0K).

November 24, 2021
## November 24, 2021

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Physicists Giuseppe Mussardo and André LeClair publish an article in which, using physical rather than mathematical methods, they demonstrated (mathematically!) That “while a violation of the Riemann Hypothesis (RH) is strictly speaking not impossible, it is however extremely improbable. “; that is, it is technically possible

20 October 2020
## 20 October 2020

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Researchers from Caltech and Purdue University reveal that they have solved in the Fourier domain, with algorithms (Neural Newtorks) of Artificial Intelligence, a particular type of partial differential equations (PDE – Partial Differential Equations): the Navier-Stokes used to describe motion of incompressible fluids, much more

March 19, 2007
## March 19, 2007

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The American Institute of Mathematics with the help of the super-computer Sage of Washington University manages to complete, after 4 years of work, the mapping of the E8 to explain its symmetry, it is a 248-dimensional object belonging to a Lie group (the “E8” in

March 14, 2004
## March 14, 2004

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Oxford, England. The day is 3/14, a date written in the American style, or pi Greek. Daniel Tammet, autistic with Asperger’s syndrome, recites the first 22514 digits of pi from memory in 5 hours and 9 minutes, without ever making a mistake.

December 3, 2003
## December 3, 2003

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The mathematicians announce that RSA174 has also been capitulated.

August 2003
## August 2003

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Tobias Colding and William Minicozzi find an even simpler, more geometric proof to the Poincare Conjecture than the one presented just a month earlier by Grigori “Grisha” Perelman in his third article at ‘www.arXiv.org’

July 17, 2003
## July 17, 2003

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Grigori “Grisha” Perelman sends the third article to ‘www.arXiv.org’; in it he presents a further analytical result that allows him to use the first and less difficult half of his second article to directly prove Poincare’s Conjecture ‘.

April 7, 2003
## April 7, 2003

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In Cambridge, Massachussets, the Russian mathematician Grigori “Grisha” Perelman presents the proof of the Poincare ‘Conjecture, formulated in 1904: every compact and simply connected 3-manifold (on which every closed path can be reduced to a point ) is homeomorphic (ie topologically identical) to the 3-sphere; he

March 10, 2003
## March 10, 2003

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Grigori “Grisha” Perelman sends the second article to ‘www.arXiv.org’; in it he corrects the statement of two results reported in the first article (in which he presented the proof of Poincare’s Conjecture ‘), but nevertheless shows that the corrections have no effect on the conclusions

November 11, 2002
## November 11, 2002

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The Russian mathematician Grigori “Grisha” Perelman sends an article to www.arXiv.org in which he presents the proof of the Poincare ‘conjecture, formulated in 1904: every compact and simply connected 3-manifold (on which every closed path can ‘to be reduced to a point) is homeomorphic (i.e.

August 2002
## August 2002

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Three Indian mathematicians: Manindra Agrawal, Neeraj Kayal, Nitin Saxena, without assuming the validity of the Riemann Hypothesis, demonstrate a test similar to that of Miller-Rabin, able to establish the primality of a number after a few checks.

November 2001
## November 2001

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Canadian student Michael Cameron discovers a prime number with over 4 million digits. It is 2 ^ 13466917 – 1.

August 1999
## August 1999

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With the Sieve of the Numerical Field, RSA155 is also capitulated. The result is achieved by a network of mathematicians gathered under the name of Kabalah.

June 27, 1997
## June 27, 1997

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Andrew Wiles collects the Wolfskehl prize for having solved Fermat’s Last Theorem, Wolfskehl whose problem saved his life, renewing his passion for life the night before a planned suicide, had opened the competition for the prize on 27 June 1908, worth 100,000 marks. In 1996, despite

April 7, 1997
## April 7, 1997

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A bombshell goes around the world: the Riemann hypothesis has been demonstrated! It will then be discovered that it was an April Fool of Prof. Enrico Bombieri, one of the leading researchers involved, at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton.

1997
## 1997

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Mertone Scholes won the Nobel Prize in Economics (Fischer Black died in 1997), for the Black-Scholes equation which describes the price trend of a financial derivative. The formula will then be used and abused, forgetting the conditions of its validity, contributing to the subsequent financial collapses.

19 September 1994
## 19 September 1994

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Andrew Wiles proves Fermat’s Theorem with a 130-page proof focused on the proof of the Shimura-Taniyama Conjecture (Fermat’s Last Theorem: a ^ n + b ^ n different from c ^ n for every n> 2). The proof will be published in the May 1995 issue

April, 1994
## April, 1994

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To the mathematicians Arjen Lenstra and Mark Manasse, through the use of the internet and distributed PCs, they capitulate RSA129 with the quadratic sieve of Pomerance. The smallest number that still resists decomposition now has over 160 digits.

1987
## 1987

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Ingrid Daubechies, Belgian physicist and physicist, at Bell Labs in Murray Hill (New Jersey) discovers the right tool for Wavelet Theory: an entirely tailless mother wavelet (previous attempts, in the early 1980s by Jean Morlet, Alexander Grossman, Yves Meyer, had led to mother wavelets, but

Summer 1986
## Summer 1986

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Ken Ribet and Barry Mazur prove Frey’s conjecture thus linking the Tanyiama-Shimura conjecture to Fermat’s Last Theorem

1984
## 1984

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The New Zealand mathematician Vaughan Frederick Randal Jones, expert in knot theory, invents the Jones Polynomial, the invariant of knots. This will make him win the Fields Medal in 1990. This will open the way to other invariants of the nodes, including the generalization called HOMFLY-PT,

1984
## 1984

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The American Robert Axelrod publishes in Science “The Evolution of Cooperation” or a Prisoner Dilemma tournament open to all scholars: each submitted algorithm can cooperate (cooperate) or pass-to-enemy / attack (defect): the winning strategy turns out to be the TIT-FOR-TAT (blow for blow) of prof. Anatol

1982
## 1982

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The American William Thurston completes the Geometrization Conjecture: in dimension 3 there are only 8 different geometries, instead of the 3 found in dimension 2. The Geometrization Conjecture implies the Poincare’s Conjecture ‘. Most of the 3 manifolds in 3 space have a hyperbolic structure. The same

January 14, 1978
## January 14, 1978

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Kurt Godel dies, allowing himself to be killed by hunger. In fact, he suffered from hypochondriacal personality disorders that led him not to eat for fear of being poisoned.

1976
## 1976

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Two University of Illinois mathematicians, Kenneth Appel and Wolfgang Haken, solve the four-color problem. o: is it possible to draw an imaginative political map with a minimum number of colors higher than four? (without two neighboring countries in more than single points having the same color). Appel and

February 15, 1970
## February 15, 1970

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Jurij Matijasievic finds the last piece of the puzzle and proves Julia Robinson’s assertion and therefore Hilbert’s tenth problem: there is no program that allows us to establish whether any equation has a solution

1970
## 1970

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American mathematician Stephen Cook, while completing his PhD in Computer Science at the University of California at Berkeley, discovers the SAT (Satisfiability) for NP-Complete (Non-deterministic, Polynomially time bounded) problems: solving any NP-complete problem is equivalent to solving any instance of SAT (over 2000 different NP-complete

October 17, 1956
## October 17, 1956

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New York City. The Game of the Century: 13-year-old American Bobby Fischer plays and wins chess against Donald Byrne, seeded in the national rankings and 13 years older than him. 13-year-old Fischer makes two dramatic apparent sacrifices at the start of the game: first he exposes a

1956
## 1956

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John Nash became famous by solving the Riemann Immersion Problem. Shortly thereafter he falls into a profound schizophrenic psychosis. The Riemann Immersion Problem: It is possible to immerse every surface, and more generally every manifold with a metric in the Riemannian sense, in some n-dimensional Euclidean space

1955
## 1955

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S. Skewes shows that the frequency with which the prime numbers thin out, found by Gauss, for sufficiently high figures was underestimated; the first of these figures must be less than 10 ^ 10 ^ 10000000000000000000000000000000000; if a person were to play chess with all particles in

January 30, 1952
## January 30, 1952

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Raphael Robinson, at Berkeley, writes a program for the Standard Western Automatic Computer (SWAC) which calculates a huge Mersenne prime number (Mersenne’s Primes): 2 ^ 521 – 1. A few hours later it produces an even bigger one: 2 ^ 607 – 1. The same

11 June 1950
## 11 June 1950

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Desert Inn, Las Vegas. A casino customer manages to hit 28 consecutive right shots on the dice. A priori, there’s a one in 10 million chance. (but obviously with tens of millions of plays over so many decades, at least one case is expected to happen …)

1950 – 1953
## 1950 – 1953

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John Nash studies Non-Cooperative Game Theory and Bargaining Theory (bargaining theory)

February 14, 1943
## February 14, 1943

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Hilbert dies after a fall in the streets of Göttingen. For the German town, already marked by the Nazi purges, this event marks the end of its role as mecca of mathematics. German mathematics will no longer be what it was.

April, 1940
## April, 1940

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Following the invasion of Denmark by Germany, the South African mathematician John Kerrich, who happened to be in Copenhagen, was also imprisoned. The mathematician will use the free time (a lot) of the years of imprisonment to flip a coin 10 thousand times and write down

January 1940
## January 1940

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Kurt Godel and his wife leave Vienna for Princeton, USA, they reached it with the trans-Siberian, through Japan from which they sailed for San Francisco reaching their destination only in March 1940; Godel would never set foot on European soil again

1933 – 1940
## 1933 – 1940

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Kurt Godel commutes between Vienna and the Princeton Institue for Advanced Study