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November 2017

November 2017

in Tags

In the United States, the first in vivo gene editing intervention is carried out, therefore not in cell culture in the laboratory but directly on a patient suffering from Hunter syndrome. The therapy, tested by the Californian Sangamo Therapeutics, sees the use of a viral vector

2016

2016

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China: Crispr in vitro, in a patient with lung cancer: immune cells had been edited in order to deactivate a gene (PD-1) that blocks the immune response against cancer cells, to then be transplanted back into the organism of the patient with the aim of

August 2016

August 2016

in Tags

The US FDA approves the use of genetic modification (GMO) techniques on mosquitoes to combat the spread of the Zika virus, which has caused so much pain and deaths in Brazil and other countries, and which is now also appearing in Florida. The approved technique was

February 2015

February 2015

in Tags

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. The insertion of the single human gene Frizzled-8 into a fetus of a mouse causes the brain to grow disproportionately, as occurs in Homo Sapiens.

7 May 2014

7 May 2014

in Tags

In the article “A semi-synthetic organism with an expanded genetic alphabet” published in Nature, researchers Denis A. Malyshev, Kirandeep Dhami, Thomas Lavergne, Tingjian Chen, Nan Dai, Jeremy M. Foster, Ivan R. Corrêa, Floyd E Romesberg, of The Scripps Research Institute, of La Jolla in California,

June 2012

June 2012

in Tags

Improvement of the CRISPR-Cas9 tool, which allows multiple targeted modifications of each DNA in vitro, for purposes such as: plants resistant to fungi and diseases, animal models of a disease, treating defective organs, reducing cholesterol levels, repairing stem cells in vitro , stop AIDS infection,

January 2011

January 2011

in Tags

Cholera is raging in Haiti, already devastated by the earthquake. There is a rumor among the people, denied by the government, that it was imported by UN soldiers from Nepal, part of the earthquake rescuers. But a study of the genome of the Vibro Cholera from Haiti,

January 2011

January 2011

in Tags

Ronald DePinho of the Dana Farber Cancer Institute in Boston demonstrates in an experiment on mice that with appropriate chemical signals it is possible to rejuvenate a suitably genetically modified organism. The DNA of the mice is modified so as not to express telomerase, which repairs

May 21, 2010

May 21, 2010

in Tags

Craig Venter’s team develops the first artificial cell in the laboratory, controlled by a synthetic gene pool. Venter had already conceived the Genome Project in the race to sequencing our DNA, arriving first, and had already in the past chemically synthesized the genome of a bacterium

2010

2010

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Svante Paabo and his team sequences and identifies Denisovan’s Homo mitochondrial DNA (mDNA), extracted from a tiny phalanx of the little finger of a female hand, found in a cave in the Altai Mountains, Central Asia, in also inhabited caves. , at different times, by

February 2010

February 2010

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The team of experts led by Danish scientists Eske Willerslev and Morten Rasmussen analyzes the ancient remains of our ancestor who lived 4000 years ago on the west coast of Greenland, on the island of Qeqertasussuk. The remains were found in 1986, together with a lock

July 28, 2009

July 28, 2009

in Tags

Svante Paabo and his collaborators show that 2% of the human DNA of non-African populations derives from Neanderthal Homo, a small but significant percentage, and well above the error threshold. After all, Neanderthal Homo is not totally extinct: it lives within us.

January 2007

January 2007

in Tags

A team of scientists from Wake Forest University School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, North Carolina discovers the presence of stem cells in amniotic fluid

25 August 2006

25 August 2006

in Tags

Shinya Yamanaka and colleagues, from the University of Kyoto, publish an article on Cell in which they announce that they have regressed adult mouse fibroblasts to the stage of embryonic stem cells; the research will be confirmed in June 2007 by two American research groups

2006

2006

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Dave Deamer (University of California in Santa Cruz), Dan Branton (Harvard) and George Church (Harvard Medical School) develop the DNA sequencing technique called Nanopore Sequencing based on nanotechnology: in practice, single-stranded DNA is passed through electrical attraction through a pore of 1.5nm thus varying the

February 12, 2001

February 12, 2001

in Tags

The human genome is published (Celera Genomics publishes in the American journal Science while the Anglo-American public consortium Human Genome Project publishes in the English journal Nature); appears to be composed of only 30,000 genes (compared to 90,000 expected)

June 26, 2000

June 26, 2000

in Tags

Celera and the international consortium (USA, UK, France, Germany, China) Human Genome Project announce the mapping of 95% of the human genome, in the presence of Bill Clinton and Tony Blair

2000

2000

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For 1000 British pounds, 10 000 strands of DNA are sequenced; in 1968, 20 were sequenced

May 18, 2000

May 18, 2000

in Tags

Nature magazine publishes the nearly complete sequence (99.7% of base pairs) of human chromosome 21 (the smallest of the 24, with only 250 of the 100,000 genes, chromosome 21 has 33,546,361 base pairs)

2000

2000

in Tags

Svante Paabo publishes an article in Nature Genetics in which he points out that Neanderthal Homo, based on the DNA sequencing of some specimens, probably had a small genetic variation, as did Homo Sapiens, indicating that it was the result of a time in which

2 December 1999

2 December 1999

in Tags

A team of scientists from UK, Japan, USA, Canada, Sweden reveal the genetic mapping of human chromosome 22 (545 genes and 134 known pseudo-genes), the second smallest, consisting of 33 million base pairs and could contain up to 1000 genes

1999

1999

in Tags

Advanced Cell Technology’s Robert Lanza Announces Man’s Cloning; the experiment is stopped for ethical reasons after 12 days

1997

1997

in Tags

The genetic map of Escherichia coli is completed. It is the first living being to be fully sequenced with the determination of its 4.5 million bases and 4288 genes. After ten years, the functioning of 85% of them and their interactions will already be known, making Escherichia

1996

1996

in Tags

Beginning of mass application of genetically modified crops: in 6 years the crops will grow to 53 million hectares in 13 countries: USA, China, Canada, Argentina, South Africa, Australia, Germany, Spain; mainly it is Soy, Corn, Rapeseed

1996

1996

in Tags

First genome of a fully decoded eukaryote (cell with nucleus): the yeast Saccharomyces Cervisiae

12 May 1994

12 May 1994

in Tags

The Food & Drug Administration approves the marketing of CalGene’s FlavrSavr tomato: the first genetically modified crop to be marketed; the FlavrSavr has been modified to rot much slower

1993

1993

in Tags

A team of researchers from the National Institute of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, discovers that at least one homosexuality gene is present on the human X chromosome

1993

1993

in Tags

University of Munich. Matthias Hoss and Svante Paabo publish “The silica extraction method” with which they show the results of the first extraction of myocondrial DNA (mDNA) from animal bones that are tens of thousands of years old. In this case we are dealing with Pleistocene horses

1992

1992

in Tags

An article on the successful DNA sequencing of a 30-million-year-old termite set in fossil amber is published in the journal Science. This will spark the imagination of Hollywood writers and directors. However, it will be demonstrated later that they probably sequenced stretches of human DNA that ended

1992

1992

in Tags

“Mimivirus” discovered in an air conditioning duct in England; it is a huge virus (about the size of a bacterium) and with genetic material for 80% completely unknown before

1992

1992

in Tags

First Gene Therapy intervention in Europe: it is carried out in Milan and is the first in the world to use bone marrow stem cells

1991

1991

in Tags

With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the monkey farm, created by Stalin in 1929 (by decision of the CPSU of 1926) was dismantled in Georgia (Caucasian) with the aim of studying the possibility of creating an army of ape-men with intermediate properties between man

1990

1990

in Tags

The Human Genome Project officially begins in the United States, for the complete mapping of the Human Genome

1990

1990

in Tags

The first Gene Therapy intervention is carried out in the United States: it is carried out on a girl suffering from SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency)

1986

1986

in Tags

Renato Dulbecco at a conference in Cold Spring Harbor launches the idea of ​​mapping the entire Human Genome; initially caught in mockery or as a science fiction enterprise, it will soon be taken seriously; Dulbecco, Nobel laureate, is Italian by birth, Catholic partisan, he then left Italy

1984

1984

in Tags

Steen Willadsen in Cambridge, UK, obtains 5 homozygous twin sheep by splitting a single embryo (embryo splitting)

1983

1983

in Tags

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows for the multiplication of DNA sequences in vitro. Characterization and manipulation of DNA sequences in vitro become possible for a large part of the DNA existing in nature.

1983

1983

in Tags

The American biochemist Kary Mullis of Cetus Corporation invents the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction), a technique, which will be widely used, to quickly make billions of copies of a specific small sample of DNA, thus allowing to take only small samples and then amplify it,

1983

1983

in Tags

Thomas Cech (Univ. Of Colorado), Sidney Altman (Yale) discover that RNA can itself act as a weak catalyst (in the context of the theory that sees RNA as a precursor of DNA)

1982

1982

in Tags

Creso wheat, patented only 7 years earlier by Bozzini and Mosconi, obtained in the “gamma fields” with radioactive cesium, is the most cultivated in Italy.

1980

1980

in Tags

Richard Dawkins and, later also Doolittle and Sapienza, Orgel and Crick, develop the Selfish Gene theory that the real purpose of DNA is to survive, the best way he has found is through the use of vehicles: animals. ; this theory therefore explains the large percentage

January 1980

January 1980

in Tags

The physicist Tullio Regge, in Scientific American, talks for the first time about the creso wheat, patented 5 years earlier by Bozzini and Mosconi, obtained in the “gamma fields” with radioactive cesium. It will soon become (in 1982) the most cultivated in Italy.

1979

1979

in Tags

Richmond and Smith hypothesize the extracellular nature of organelles (such as mitochondria) and micro-organisms that now inhabit the cell; therefore seen as invading organisms then assimilated by the cell when the way of reproduction of the parasitic genes becomes the same as the host organism: the

1978

1978

in Tags

Ed Lewis discovers that the bithorax malformation is caused by a mutation in a single gene, or a control gene

1977

1977

in Tags

The two Americans Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer obtain somatostatin through genetic engineering

1976

1976

in Tags

Grun discovers phenotypic effects of non-nuclear genes (i.e. not present in chromosomes) such as genes in cell organelles such as mitochondria or free in the cytoplasm

1976

1976

in Tags

Cohen discovers existence in Jumping Genes bacteria: genes that jump from species to species by invading a chromosome of another species

1975

1975

in Tags

Rome. Bozzini and Mosconi patented the creso wheat, obtained in the “gamma fields” with radioactive cesium, which accidentally modifies the genetics of the wheat arranged in a radial pattern around the sample. Then the most promising specimens are selected. The experiments are conducted by Barilla in collaboration with

1973

1973

in Tags

The two Americans Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer demonstrate that it is possible to manipulate DNA to obtain a drug produced by bacteria: somatostatin; it is the birth certificate of genetic engineering

1970

1970

in Tags

The American Lynn Margulis for the first time hypothesizes the independent origin of organelles with DNA such as mitochondria and chloroplasts, in the form of parasitic prokaryotes

1970

1970

in Tags

Bacterial enzymes, called restriction enzymes, cut specific DNA sequences, and become fundamental tools for characterizing and specifically manipulating DNA in vitro

1967

1967

in Tags

Marshall Niremberg discovers that the fundamental building blocks of the genetic code of Escherichia coli is the same as that of the frog and the guinea pig: it is a universal code that confirms the common origin of all living beings already predicted a century

1966

1966

in Tags

The Scottish chemist Graham Cairns-Smith coined the theory called Inorganic Mineral according to which DNA is nothing more than the last link in a chain of cruder replicators whose first links would be constituted by mineral replicators that would have acted perhaps in the first

1962

1962

in Tags

John Gurdon of Cambridge University transplants the nucleus of a frog embryo cell into an egg from another frog; the animal develops up to the tadpole stage and then dies

60’s

60’s

in Tags

WD Hamilton and GC Williams complete the point of view of the gene on evolution, in the context of neo-Darwinism: the fundamental unit of life is the Replicator, that is the gene, over time only the most efficient survived. in large quantities among them those

1957

1957

in Tags

The theoretical model of Watson and Crick is confirmed with one of the most beautiful experiments in biology: Matthew Meselson and Frank Stahl feed Escherichia coli with heavy nitrogen (with an extra neutron) and discover that its DNA becomes heavier than that of bacteria fed

1955

1955

in Tags

Kalmus demonstrates that police dogs can distinguish the smell of human sweat except that of homozygous twins, thus demonstrating the genetic polarization of sweat

April 25, 1953

April 25, 1953

in Tags

James Watson and Francis Crick publish the article A Structure For Doxyribose Nucleic Acid in Nature; articles by Wilkins and Franklin are also published separately. Rosalind Franklin, who had made the microscope detections, will die in 1958, while Watson and Crick will be awarded the Nobel in

early 1953

early 1953

in Tags

Pauling publishes his article on the alleged triple helix of DNA, but before publishing it, a copy is given by Pauling’s son, Peter, to lab colleagues James Watson and Francis Crick who will be heartened to continue their research on the subject, and that shortly

1952

1952

in Tags

Americans Robert Briggs and Thomas King transplant the nucleus of an embryo cell into a frog egg

1952

1952

in Tags

Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase radioactively label phage DNA, later discovering traces of radioactivity in the infected bacterium, but not in the envelope left by the virus outside it. On the other hand, marking the proteins the effect is the opposite. This shows that it is not

1951

1951

in Tags

Henrietta Lacks cells (HeLa cell line) are cloned as part of cancer research; in half a century the culture of HeLa cells will assume industrial dimensions: tons per day; all, technically, clones of Henrietta Lacks