If matter were stable all this time (but it isn’t …), then everything would be Fe56
The e + positrons created by the p + protons meet the e- electrons and turn into energy. At this point the 10 ^ 79 particles that made up the universe should be energy (…) Entropy – the Second Law of Thermodynamics – is the relentless
Quantum tunneling liquefies matter
The 10 ^ 80 protons p + decay into positrons and + (which annihilate with electrons and – producing gamma rays) and into pions (which also decay into gamma rays)
The man considered the “father of the nuclear bomb of Pakistan”, Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, died at the age of 85 after being hospitalized with Covid-19. Dr. Khan has been hailed as a national hero for turning his country into the world’s first Islamic nuclear power. But
Nuclear site of Natanz, Iran. Thousands of centrifuges are destroyed or damaged by cyber sabotage. The centrifuges are used to separate “weapon grade” Uranium 235 (necessary to make nuclear weapons) from Uranium 238 (abundant in nature). Much of the complex is located up to 50 meters underground. A week
Iran withdraws from the nuclear limitation treaty signed since 2015.
Archangel, Russia. Nuclear accident on a platform in the Arctic Sea, during a test of a new nuclear missile by the Russian military. 7 engineers who were working on the new weapon system die (which is not revealed). For a few hours, a radiation peak equal to 16
Kaonan Micadei of the Federal University of ABC in Brazil, build a micro system, at the atomic level, where the arrow of time, understood as linked to entropy, is reversed, i.e. heat flows from a cold body to a hot one.
North Korea. Underground explosion of a thermonuclear device of about 50Kton. This is the sixth North Korean nuclear test.
The ALPHA experiment at the LHC particle accelerator in Geneva records the spectrum of an anti-hydrogen atom for the first time. The spectrum identical to that of hydrogen is confirmed, as per the CPT inversion theory (Charge, Parity-Spin, Time)
North Korea tests its fourth nuclear device in Sungjibaegam, Punggye-ri, located in North Hamgyong province in the north-east of the country. The country’s government claims the test is a “miniaturized H-bomb”. There are doubts that it was a hydrogen bomb, however, and the explosion should have been
The Wendelstein 7-X Stellarator is switched on in Germany for the first time. Initially with Elio. It is a prototype nuclear fusion reactor with an innovative design compared to traditional tokamak. The project has a budget of 1.06 BLN EUR.
Vienna. After almost two years of negotiations, the Iranian nuclear deal is confirmed.
Geneva. The first data from collisions at 13 TeV are collected after restarting the LHC with doubled power.
Lausanne. The negotiations between the Americans and the Iranians reach, after many postponements, the agreement for the general framework which provides, among other things, the reduction of the Iranian centrifuges from over 19000 to 6104, not to enrich uranium beyond 3.67% for at least 15 years,
The United States has 4,650 nuclear devices, of which about 300 are assigned to strategic bombers, 500 to Minuteman III missiles, 1,150 to Trident missiles aboard nuclear submarines, and another 200 thermonuclear bombs are stored in Turkey, Belgium, Holland, Germany, Italy for use by NATO
At the LHC in Geneva the discovery (with 5 sigma confidence) of a Higgs boson with mass estimated to be around 125.3GeV (CMS measure) – 126.0 GeV (Atlas measure) is confirmed.
Fukushima, Japan: it was decided to discharge water from Chinook helicopters from above on reactors number 2 and 4 to cool them and prevent the core from melting. Then he tries by making firefighters’ vehicles approach with a powerful water cannon, but both attempts fail several
Fukushima, Japan: fires and explosions also in reactors number 2 and 4. The 4 releases significant quantities of radiation due to the exposure of spent uranium rods stored in the upper part of the building, causing a fire.
Fukushima, Japan: Reactor 3 also exploded, devastating the containment structure, again due to accumulated hydrogen. The shell of the core holds up. The 3 is the only one that also uses Plutonium in the fuel mix.
Fukushima, Japan: Explosion at reactor 1, caused by the accumulation of hydrogen. The outer concrete shell is torn apart. The steel casing that protects the core holds up. Radioactivity near the plant reaches a peak of 1204 microsieverts per hour, about double the limits set by Japanese law.
Fukushima, Japan: the reactors are cooled with sea water, a measure that seems to reassure but which reveals a desperate act given the extreme measure.
Fukushima, Japan: The 6 reactors shut down automatically at the start of the 9.0 Ricther scale earthquake. However, they are seriously damaged by the subsequent tsunami that puts the automatic cooling system in crisis.
Professor Sergio Focardi and engineer Andrea Rossi demonstrate in a laboratory in Via dell’Elettricista in Bologna an energy production process that could be cold fusion between Nickel atoms and Hydrogen atoms. The energy produced is 15 times higher than that introduced. The process is not clear but
The LHC (Large Hadron Collider) is turned on at CERN in Geneva
John Archibald Wheeler, one of the greatest physicists of the 20th century, dies of pneumonia at the age of 96, coined the name “black holes”, had worked with Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, and had been mentored by talents such as Richard Feynman and Hugh
Alberto Carpintieri, professor of Construction Sciences at the Polytechnic of Turin, and Fabio Cardone, physicist, publish the controversial results on the piezo nuclear fission observed in elements such as iron or nickel in granite or basalt compressed at high pressures, with emission of neutrons. The research,
With the article “Classical World Arising out of Quantum Physics under the Restriction of Coarse-Grained Measurements” Johannes Kofler and Časlav Brukner of Fakultät für Physik, Universität Wien, describe the experiments with which they observe the gradual fading of quantum reality and the rise of classical
Scientists from the Auger Observatory show that very high-energy cosmic rays come from supermassive black holes in the center of galaxies
John Pendry of Imperial College London, David Dschurig and David Smith of Duke University of North Carolina, make a relatively simple device that is invisible (“Cloak of Invisibility”) to 3.5cm microwaves polarized perpendicular to its plane.
A mixed Russian-American group in Dubna is able to produce as many as 3 atoms of element 118 (Organesson, the last in the lower right corner of Mendeleev’s Table), and the same group will also produce 113 Nihonium, 114 Flevorium, 115 , Moscovium, 116 Livermorium,
Hans Bethe dies
Soudan, Minnesota (former US Steel iron mine). The MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) experiment records two or three events per week. The aim is to clarify the oscillation of solar neutrinos between electronic neutrinos (as they are emitted by the nucleus) and muon and tau neutrinos.
A group of scientists from the University of Science and Technology of China manages to entangle 5 photons, a property that allows the quantum state of one of the 5 photons to be teleported to one of the other three using the fourth as an
Edward Teller, father of the American H bomb, Hungarian by birth, hawk under various administrations, convinced anti-communist and supporter of the use of the Bomb for various applications, in addition to the military one, dies
The never-ending story of missing solar neutrinos has come to an end: the deficit of about 50% of solar neutrinos, now confirmed by five experiments (SAGE, GALLEX, Super-Kamiokande, SNO, Davis) is explained by the revelation of all and three flavors in the SNO experiment via
Steven D. Howe, Gerald P. Jackson of H-Bar Technologies propose storing anti-hydrogen in 14K solid pellets with a diameter of 150um suspended in electrostatic traps; 42mg would be equivalent to the energy of the Space Shuttle External Tank; 500Kg would be equivalent to the entire energy needs
Shamit Kachru, Renata Kallosh and Andrei Linde of Stanford, and Sandip Trivedi of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Bombay, India, find strong evidence that the “landscape of string theory” (the multidimensional “landscape” created by the possible values assumed by the equations of string
The speed of gravity is measured for the first time: it turns out to be about the same as that of light: 300 000 Km / s (+/- 20%)
The Sino-British spouses Chan Hong-Mo and Tsou Sheung Tsun find a way to predict the 17 parameters of the Standard Model, which otherwise should be simply taken from experimental observation, calculating as many as 14; the Standard Model is SU (3) xSU (2) xU1 / Z6
The United States has 10 455 nuclear devices; Russia has 8579
The deficit of about 50% of solar neutrinos is now confirmed by four experiments (SAGE, GALLEX, Super-Kamiokande, SNO) as well as by the original Davis experiment several decades earlier. A brilliant insight into this is to use heavy water (deuterium) in the SNO experiment so that
A commission of experts in the article “Review of Speculative Disaster Scenarios at RHIC” in Reviews of Modern Physics, excludes that the experiments conducted at Brookhaven Nat’l Labs on Long Island, could trigger the destruction of the planet (in fact the creation of a drop
FermiLab, Chicago. First experimental evidence, through the DONUT (Direct Observation of NU-Tau) experiment.
The SAGE and GALLEX experiments, which have plundered nearly all of the Gallium produced on the planet for decades, measure a hundred events in ten years. The deficit with respect to the predictions is about 50%. It will later be discovered that this is due to the
Deborah S. Jin and her student Brian DeMarco generate a Fermi condensate with Potassium 40 cooled to 50 millionths of a degree Kelvin
James M. Tour, Mark Reed at Yale demonstrate that single molecules can function as switches
Anton Zeilinger and colleagues, in Vienna, perform the two-slits experiment with fullerene molecules (or bucky balls: C60 and C70) with a diameter of well one nanometer
Japanese and American scientists in Japan discover that the neutrino has mass; the Super-Kamiokande is used: a tank of 50,000 tons of water at a depth of 1000 m
Eugenio Calabi and Shing-Tung Yau mathematically describe the Calabi-Yau Sapces that is the 6 extra space-time dimensions foreseen by string theory; they are Kahler manifolds, that is, they have Riemannian metrics and complex structures
Juan Maldacena hypothesizes what will become known as Maldacena Conjecture (or ADS / CFT conjecture), it is the most famous form of the Holographic Principle according to which the state of each string of our space can be put in correspondence 1-1 with the state
Nicholas Cerf, C. Adami of Caltech and Paul Kwiat of Los Alamos National Labs show how to achieve a controlled NOT gate with polarized light
The United States has 10 763 nuclear devices; the USSR has 10 764; substantial parity decided at the table
First experimental survey of the GHZ entangled state (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger): entanglement of more than two particles in which the quantum nature of the entangled state is immediately revealed, unexplained with normal statistics or with unknown hidden variables; performed by Raymond Laflamme, Manny Knill and collaborators at Los
An international committee names element 105 as Dubnio and not Hahnio as it was informally called before. And 109 as Meitnerio. In 1944 Otto Hahn had won the Nobel Prize in physics for experiments carried out in Germany that prove beyond any doubt the fission of uranium
Intel Corp. in partnership with the Department of Energy (DOE), announces it has built a super-computer from a teraflop
President Clinton signs the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty for the total ban on nuclear tests, including underground; it will be said that this signature was made possible by the quantum-level modeling of the bomb and its surrounding environment on a super computer just built at Sandia
Basic principles are discovered that make error protection possible for quantum computers, both classic bit-flips and superposition-destrying errors
After many years of name disputes, the IUPAC publishes the definitive list of the latest elements discovered (in the last thirty years): 104 Rutherfordium, 105 Dubnium, 106 Seaborgium, 107 Bohrium, 108 Hassium, 109 Meitnerium. Then the ball will pass to the Germans of Darmstadt, who will
Detroit, United States. Sixteen-year-old David Hahn tries to build an innovative self-fertilizing nuclear reactor in the garden, with incredible skill, in his mother’s tool shed. He gets Uranium 233 (which would turn into Thorium 232, then Thorium 233, Protactinium 233, and finally Uranium 233 again. parents are
Nobel Prize in Physics to Frederick Reines for the discovery of the neutrino
Edward Witten of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey baptizes the 11-dimensional M-Theory which envisages as a particular case the 5 string theories known so far; the M-theory foresees 1 dimensional strings, 2 dimensional membranes and 3 or more dimensional branes; the special cases
Chris Monroe, Dawn Meekhof, Brian King, Wayne Itano, Dave Wineland, of the Boulder National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) manage to implement a CN gate with only one trapped ion
Wolfgang Ketterle, Eric Cornell, and Carl Wieman at MIT obtain the first Bose-Einstein Condensation in the laboratory (BEC: very low temperature atoms condense into a single object with peculiar properties). Two thousand Rubidium atoms at 0.000000001K, reach the BEC for ten seconds, a single icy agglomeration
Peter Shor of AT&T Bell Labs of New Jersey and Andrew M. Steane of Oxford University independently show how to do error-correction of a quantum-level transmitted frame, without ever reading the states of the qubits or even cloning them.
Shih, University of Baltimore, Maryland, carries out an experiment that confirms the quanglement effect (quantum information transferred through the entanglement)
At FermiLab two teams of almost 1000 scientists (USA, Italy, Japan, Canada, Taiwan) announce the discovery of the Top Quark: it has 175 GeV of mass (it weighs like an atom of gold!) One of the last pieces of the Standard Model goes to its
David di Vincenzo of IBM Research shows how to build a Deutsch Gate with combinations of only two qu-bit inputs (and outputs, being reversible)
Peter Shore of AT&T Bell Labs in New Jersey theorizes an algorithm for quantum computers to quickly find the prime factorization of a number
Charles H. Benet (IBM), Gilles Branard, Clude Crepean, Richard Josza (University of Montreal), Asher Peres (Technion, Israel Inst. Of Techn.), William K. Wootters (Williams College) discover a way to use mechanics quantum to teleport a photon (ie its quantum state)
Bruno Pontecorvo dies
Nobel Prize in Physics to Georges Charpak for the invention of particle detectors
George HW Bush announces the unilateral withdrawal of thousands of nuclear weapons. This is the largest reduction in nuclear weapons. All tactical weapons of the US Army in Europe are removed, half of those of the navy are destroyed and the rest removed and put in storage,
Crimea. Dacha of Mikhail Gorbachev. During the hostage taking of the Communist Party Secretary, his subordinates with the briefcase with the missile launch codes stay in the house next door and realize that their equipment no longer has any connection with the outside. Civilian power has lost control
NEC’s Sumiro Iijima discovers carbon nanotubes
Bob Peurifoy resigns from Sandia. The battle of a lifetime for greater nuclear weapons security in peacetime has now been successful. What years before was seen as an unnecessary potential reduction in weapon efficiency in wartime is now regarded as a necessary feature of any nuclear weapon.
General George Lee Butler is appointed head of the American SAC (Stratgic Air Command). In the first weeks of his office he decides to scrutinize the SIOP: the list of nuclear targets in Soviet (soon Russian) territory. Find bridges in the middle of nowhere in Siberia hit
The United States has 18,306 nuclear devices; the USSR has 29 606
The American Davies and the Japanese Koshiba observe in the neutrinos of cosmic rays, effects that show that the neutrino has a mass, albeit a small one. They will be awarded with the Nobel Prize.