o 4096 ^ 4096 ns: time taken by a 1GHz Turing machine (doing 1 instruction every 1ns) with 6 states, to write all the “1s” it can write, according to the Busy Beaver Problem. Busy Beaver problem: given a Turing machine that stops, how many “1’s”
o 64 ^ 64 seconds: time taken by a supercomputer (which does 1 iteration of the algorithm every 1ns) to solve the Longest Path Problem (LPP) between 64 cities (for the Shortest Path Problem n ^ 2 iterations with the algorithm are enough by Dijkstra,
The yes comes from the company meetings in Stellantis, the new giant in the automotive sector, born from the marriage between FCA and PSA. It is the fourth manufacturer in the world. The headquarters are in the Netherlands. The first shareholder is Exor (Agnelli family), followed by the
The negotiators of the European Union and those of Beijing, after 7 years of close and complex negotiations, find the political agreement that allows foreign investments in production, including electric vehicles, telecommunications and private hospitals. The announcement is made by the President of the European Commission
European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen and British Prime Minister Boris Johnson announce last-minute deal (actually after deadline) for trade terms for the end of the Brexit transitional period, which ends on 31 December 2020 .
The great magician, science writer, expert and skeptic of occultism, James Randi (James Hamilton Randall Zwinge, aka The Amazing Randi), dies at 92. He was particularly known for the One Million Dollar Paranormal Challenge, the one million dollar prize offered by his foundation, the James Randi
The agreement proposed by FCA (Fiat-Chrysler Automobile) to PSA is signed. The fourth global automobile giant is born, with 190MLD Eur behind Volkswagen, Toyota, Renault-Nissan. Among the brands represented: FIAT, Chrysler, Peugeut, Citroen, Opel, Alfa Romeo, Jeep, Maserati, Ferrari, Lancia, Abarth, Vauxhall, DS Automobiles, RAM, Dodge. The new
The United States surpasses Saudi Arabia in oil production, with 10 million barrels per day. The production of American natural gas also has a new peak, increasing by 43% from 2007 to 2017, while in the same period the consumption of coal falls by 36%.
Civilian airlines worldwide increase the percentage of seats used in their planes, from an average of 56% in 1971 to 81% in 2018.
From 1800 to 2018 carbon dioxide (CO2) increased from 283ppmv (parts per million per volume), to 408ppmv. Almost all the contribution is due to human activities: 2% is emitted by industries, 6% by buildings, 14% by transport, 24% by agriculture, 25% by electricity generation and heat.
In the world, the share of people who use the internet on a daily basis is 48%. It was less than 0.1% in 1994 (including me).
In the world the percentage of the population with a mobile phone is 65%. It was 0.0003% in 1980.
In the world the animal species monitored for protective purposes are 87967. There were 34 in 1959.
In the world, women can vote in 193 countries (out of 195). It was a single nation in 1893 (New Zealand).
There are 15,000 nuclear weapons in the world. They were 64,000 in 1986.
In the world, leaded petrol is only allowed in 3 countries. There were 193 in 1986.
In the world, slavery remained legal in only 3 countries. 193 countries were legal in 1800
In Africa there are more people with a cell phone than those with electricity at home.
In the world, smartphones sold are almost 1.5 billion, while cell phones excluding smartphones are 450 million.
The study published by Christian Schmidt, Tobias Krauth, Stephen Wagner, finds that 88-95% of all plastic waste that is in the oceans from rivers comes from just 10 countries, of which 8 are in Asia and 2 in Africa. The United States, which is responsible for
Harvard, Boston, Massachusetts. Ranga Dias and Isaac Silvera compress hydrogen between two diamonds at 495GPa at -268C, and claim to have created metallic hydrogen. Metallic hydrogen is supposed to be superfluid and superconductive and 5 times more efficient than liquid hydrogen as a propellant.
British American Tobacco (BAT) acquires full control of Reynolds by acquiring 57.8%, in a transaction worth USD 49.4 billion. BAT, which already owned brands such as MS, Lucky Strike, Dunhill, Kent, Rothmans, also acquired Came and Newport.
AT&T buys Time Warner for $ 85bn.
In the world the nations participating in the Olympics are 205. There were 14 in 1896.
In the world the scientific articles published are 2550000 / year. They were half in 2000. And they were only 119 / year in 1665.
In the world, the percentage of people with at least one vaccination is 88%. It was 22% in 1980.
In the world, the percentage of adults (over 15 years of age) with the ability to read and write is 86%. It was half in 1950. And it was 10% in 1800.
In the world the death penalty is admitted in 89 countries out of 195. There were 193 in 1900.
In the world, the percentage of protected territory as a national park, park or nature reserve is 14.7%. It was 0.03% in 1900.
In the world, 1 every 100,000 people died from war. It is the lowest value since counting. Probably always. During the Second World War it reached the value of 201 per 100 thousand people, in 1942.
In the world, the percentage of children who die before the fifth year of age is 4%. It was 44% in 1800, and 40% in 1900.
In the world, HIV infections are 241 / MLN of people. They were 549 / MLN in 1993.
Solar panels cost 0.6 USD / Wp. They cost 66USD / Wp in 1976.
In the world, only 6,000 tons of oil are lost at sea. That was 636,000 a year in 1980.
In the world, the emission of substances that damage the ozone layer is 2200 tons / year. It was 1663000 tons / year in 1970.
Rio de Janeiro Olympics
The Impresub picks up the Libyan vessel that sank at a depth of 370m, with hundreds of bodies on board.
The population living in democratic states is 56% of humanity. In 1988 it was 41%.
More than 45% of the world population uses the internet on a daily basis. In 2000 the figure was less than 7%.
There are more telephone subscriptions in the world than inhabitants on the planet.
There are more cell phones in the world than toilets attached to a sewer system.
A modern SUV or pickup from the early second decade of the 21st century consumes 99% less fuel than a typical 1970 car in terms of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate emissions. In practice, a modern car launched at full speed consumes less than
The USS Zumwalt goes out to sea. It is a destroyer with a very low radar footprint, all-electric, and with an electromagnetic rail-gun capable of striking 110 miles away with shots that go out at Mach 7. The commander could only be called James Kirk.
In the world, the percentage of girls who go to elementary school is 90%. It was 65% in 1970.
In the world, the percentage of people with running and drinking water at home is 88%. It was 58% in 1980.
In the world, 6210002 pieces of music are released on the market each year. They were a tenth ten years earlier.
Volkswagen admits to falsifying US pollution tests of their cars. Admission takes place after the tests carried out by the American environmental body (EPA – Environmental Protection Agency). 11 million cars are involved and the company faces $ 18 billion in fines. The stock in Frankfurt loses 18%
In the world, 11% of people are malnourished. They were 28% in 1970.
ChemChina acquires control of Pirelli with an offer of 7.1 billion USD.
The Italian BTP – German Bund Spread drops to 98.6, for the first time below 100 points since mid-May 2010, having also reached peaks above 500 points (5%) at the end of 2011 and in 2012.
The Japanese giant Hitachi buys the Italian companies Ansaldo Breda and Ansaldo STS, leaders in the field of rail transport, for EUR 1.9 billion. This is the largest foreign acquisition for Hitachi and the largest Japanese investment in Italy.
Italy and Switzerland sign an agreement for the end of banking secrecy. A similar agreement was signed with Liechtenstein after a few days.
Mario Draghi, head of the European Central Bank, announces the decision to issue Quantitive Easing with the purchase of government bonds for a value of 60 billion euros per month until September 2016 for a total of 1100 billion euros. The EU is in various parts
The number of accidents with loss of crude oil at sea is at an all-time low: stable around 3-4 per year, almost constantly decreasing from the peak of 115 / year in 1975. In the same period, shipments of crude oil by sea increased from
Rate of deaths from road accidents in the United States: 1 death per 100MLN of miles traveled. It was 24 in 1922 and 10 in 1940. It is constantly falling.
There are 38,422 deaths from terrorism in the world, of which 44 in the US, 175 in Europe. Per Guerra there are 97,496 in the world, of which 28 in the USA, 5 in Europe. For homicide 437000 worldwide, of which 15696 in the USA, 3962 in
International tourism: the number of arrivals is equal to 1.2 billion people / year. It was 550M people / year in 1995.
Spending on the needs of the average American is 25%. It was 60% in 1935.
The number of countries that have decriminalized homosexuality is 90. It was only 4 in 1805 and 15 in 1895.
The number of incidents due to hate crimes in the United States is 2000 against blacks, 800 against Jews, 800 against whites, 200 against Asians and 300 against Muslims (the latter is the only index uphill). In 1996 they were 3500 against blacks, 1000 against Jews,
Life expectancy for African Americans in the United States rises to 76 (78 for Caucasians). For African Americans it was 33 in 1900 (50 for Caucasians). In 2015, African Americans reaching 65 had a longer life expectancy than Caucasians at the same age.
The number of democracies (defined by the Polity Project with an index greater than 6.0 on their scale) has a new high at 103 (they were 87 in 2009, 52 in 1989, 36 in 1962, 12 in 1942, 29 in 1922).
For the first time, since the beginning of the Industrial Age, the planet becomes greener. Thanks to reforestation in Russia, China, but also in the West (thanks to the abandonment of rural mountain villages in Europe, and the massive reduction of the cultivated area in the
The world population living in extreme poverty, which had been increasing since 1820 in absolute terms (not percentages), begins to decline in 1970, despite the fact that the total world population continues to increase, and by a great deal. The world population in extreme poverty, after
Infant mortality and mothers’ mortality at childbirth halved compared to 1990 values in middle, medium-low and low-income countries.
Worldwide life expectancy rises to 70 years (it was 46 years in 1950 and was 30 years in 1870).
The price of oil drops to USD 50 per barrel, the lowest price reached in several years. The reasons are probably also to be found in the enormous quantities of oil and gas extracted with the techniques of fracking in the United States.
The number of women victims of aggression in the United States is 400 for domestic violence and 200 for sexual violence, per 100 thousand women per year (0.4% / year and 0.2% / year). In 1993 they were 1600 and 800 respectively (1.6% / year and
In the world, the percentage of people with access to electricity at home is 85%. It was 72% in 1991.
The yield per hectare in the world is 4 tons / hectare. It was 1.4ton / hectare 1961
15% of the world population over 15 years of age is illiterate. The figure was 44% in 1980.
The spread between Italian BTPs and German Bunds returns below 200 points (2%) for the first time since July 2011, after having also reached 600 points at the end of 2011.
Sergio Marchionne, CEO of FIAT, completes the acquisition of 100% of Chrysler. In fact, the agreement with the American union of pensioners UAW is completed for the purchase of the remaining 42% of the shares, for 4.35BLN USD, mostly (2.60BLN USD) paid out by Chrysler directly,
Launch of the USS Gerald Ford or the CVN78 (Carrier Vessel Nuclear) of the US Navy, the first of the Ford class. It is part of the CVN21 class and will cover the entire 21st century, with innovations such as the electromagnetic catapult (basically a long
Microsoft buys Nokia’s mobile phone business for USD 5.4 billion
Vodaphone sells its 45% stake in Verizon Wireless in the US to Verizon Communication for $ 130bn.
United States. Oil production in the United States reaches and exceeds 7.57 million barrels per day, thus exceeding the previous peak which dates back to December 1989. All this is made possible thanks to Shale Gas technologies.
The Washington Post is bought by Amazon founder and owner Jeff Bezos for $ 250M
The bird-watchers of Lebanon and Israel reach a historic agreement (which politicians are far from reaching): in the autumn, Lebanese bird-watchers warn the Israeli airport authorities as soon as they spot the first flocks of eagles migrating from Europe to Africa for the winter, and
The world’s first artificial hamburger is made and eaten. No cow has been killed and slaughtered for this: it is raised from specially produced cells. The first artificial steak cost $ 330,000. After 4 years of research and development, the price drops to 11 USD. It is expected that