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BigBang + 10 ^ (10 ^ 120) years

The universe (if it were stable all this time – and we have no reason to believe it is – and infinite in the spatial dimension – and it could very well be) is old enough to have a 50% chance that the light of

BigBang + 10 ^ (10 ^ 30) years

The universe (if it were stable all this time – and we have no reason to believe it is – and infinite in the spatial dimension – and it could very well be) is old enough to have a 50% chance that the light of

BigBang + 10 ^ (10 ^ 28) years

The universe (if it were stable all this time – and we have no reason to believe it is – and infinite in the spatial dimension – and it could very well be) is old enough to have a 50% chance that the light of

BB +> 0.533 * 10 ^ 14780 years

o 4096 ^ 4096 ns: time taken by a 1GHz Turing machine (doing 1 instruction every 1ns) with 6 states, to write all the “1s” it can write, according to the Busy Beaver Problem. Busy Beaver problem: given a Turing machine that stops, how many “1’s”

BigBang + 10 ^ 116 years

The e + positrons created by the p + protons meet the e- electrons and turn into energy. At this point the 10 ^ 79 particles that made up the universe should be energy (…) Entropy – the Second Law of Thermodynamics – is the relentless

BigBang + 10 ^ 100 years

A Googol of years (term coined by the mathematician Edward Kasner at the age of 9). After a googol of years, the temperature of the Universe is an almost uniform value very close to absolute zero (0K).

BigBang + 1.25 * 10 ^ 99years

o 64 ^ 64 seconds: time taken by a supercomputer (which does 1 iteration of the algorithm every 1ns) to solve the Longest Path Problem (LPP) between 64 cities (for the Shortest Path Problem n ^ 2 iterations with the algorithm are enough by Dijkstra,

BigBang + 10 ^ 98 years

The huge galactic Black Holes of original mass equal to several billion solar masses also evaporate, such as the one that lay at the center of Milkomeda, the galaxy born from the merger of (our) Milky Way and Andromeda.

BigBang + 10 ^ 38 years

The decay of protons lowers the atomic number of atoms in the Universe: the metal nuclei of the remaining rocky planets are transformed into hydrogen.

BigBang + 10 ^ 35 years

The 10 ^ 80 protons p + decay into positrons and + (which annihilate with electrons and – producing gamma rays) and into pions (which also decay into gamma rays)

BigBang + 5 * 10 ^ 13years

The electromagnetic radiation of the stars is stretched by the accelerated expansion (by dark energy) of the Universe and the wavelength of photons becomes larger than the visible Universe

BigBang + 585MLD years

The monks of the Towers of Hanoi of the Benares Temple finish composing the Tower of Bramah (if they were quick enough to move one disc per second on average) and the Universe according to the Hindus ends

in 120 billion years

Due to the red shift, the gigantic Virgo Cluster falls beyond our horizon of visibility and Milkomeda remains the only observable galaxy.

in 20 billion years

In the theory conceived in 2003 by Robert Caldwell, the force of dark energy grows so dramatically that it soon disintegrates matter itself until the Big Rip in 20 billion years. The Theory does not find much credit in the scientific environment.

in 6.3 billion years

The core of the Sun runs out of Helium. Gravity prevails and causes a new collapse of the core, triggering violent and unstable mergers. A series of 4 convulsions occur, each separated by 100,000 years. The Sun reaches the frightening brightness of 5200 times the current one. They are

in 6.2 billion years

The Sun’s core compresses and heats up to 100 million degrees. The heat expands into the outer layers turning it into a swollen red giant 250 times larger and 2700 times brighter than today. The Earth reaches the solar atmosphere and soon the friction makes it fall

in 5.1 billion years

Second encounter-impact between the Milky Way and Andromeda. At this point, the two galaxies are an ellipsoidal cluster of nearly 1,000 billion stars – an elliptical galaxy that TJ Cox and Abi Loeb of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics call Milkomeda.

3.3 billion years from now

The Sun (and the Solar System), if not the Milky Way did not collide with Andromeda, would leave the arm of Orion and enter the arm of Perseus, towards the Galactic Center

in 3.9 billion years

The central Black Hole of the Milky Way goes from a few million to a few billion solar masses thanks to a good feast of stars caused by the instability caused by the first impact with Andromeda. Eventually the object cyclically transforms itself into a very

in 3.8 billion years

In the merger of our Galaxy (Milky Way) and that of Andromeda, the Sun has a 12% chance of ending up in the tidal tail and being ejected into the abysses of intergalactic space, a 3% chance of being incorporated by Andromeda in the subsequent

in 3.8 billion years

First encounter-impact between the Milky Way and Andromeda. Gravity gives rise to rings and ripples in the distribution of the stars and expels a gigantic arc with more than a billion stars into the intergalactic vacuum.

in 1MLD years

End of the drying up of the oceans: all the water that was on the surface is filtered in the subsoil and in the mantle which is no longer hot enough to re-emit it to the surface in the form of steam. Even life in the

in 500 million years

The atmospheric warming caused by the Sun accelerates the action of atmospheric agents, displacing the carbon dioxide CO2 from the atmosphere to the oceans. The CO2 concentration is lowered so much that photosynthesis becomes impossible and most plants become extinct on Earth.

in 300 million years

The supercontinent Pangea Ultima is formed from the union of Austro-Antarctica-Eurafrasia and the Americas; the hypothesis is by Christopher Scotese

in 100 million years

Approximate estimated time of the disappearance of the rings of Saturn, inexorably attracted to the planet and precipitated on it.

in 4 million years

Next passage of the Great Comet of January 1910. In 1910 it was very bright, visible even to the naked eye and during the day.

in 2 million years

Comets launched towards the inner Solar System by the passage of the Scholz binary star, whiz around the Sun, threatening the Earth as well. Scholz’s binary star was discovered in 2013 AD and is composed of a red dwarf and a brown dwarf, both very weak

in 1.5 million years

The red dwarf star Gliese 710 passes just 1 light year from the Sun, interfering with the Oort Cloud and launching a few million comets towards the inner Solar System and therefore also the Earth. At this point Gliese 710 blazes in the sky with the

in 1 million years

850 light-years away, the (now) blue super-giant Rigel, in the constellation of Orion, explodes in a spectacular type II supernova that illuminates the night sky on Earth like 100 full moons concentrated in one spot. Before Rigel, the other very bright star of Orion, Betelgeuse (620

BigBang + 13MLD years

(current age of the Universe) The universe, considered with discrete time and matter with a discrete quantum structure and discrete states, i.e. considered as a gigantic computer that processes information (qubits) has processed about 10 ^ 123 binary operations in the 4E17s available since the

in 300,000 years

The neutron star (100 000 billion times denser than steel) born from the explosion of the supernova RX J185635-3754 passes (at 100Km / s) 170 light years from Earth

in 40,000 years

Voyager 1 comes within 1.6 light years of the star AC + 79 38888 of Camelopardis and is captured by its gravity (it is currently in the direction of the constellation Ofphiuco, or the direction of the Solar Apex: the direction in which the Sun

in 25,000 years

The radio signal sent by Frank Drake from Arecibo reaches the globular cluster M13, made up of 300,000 stars


Passage of the Flaugergues Comet, also mentioned by Tolstoy in “War and Peace”. It had passed in 1811. It should come back in the year 4800.


Passage of Hale Bopp’s comet, near the Earth. It had passed in 1997 (I saw it).


End of the current European-American era according to Rudolf Steiner. Anthroposophy has its own concept of history: according to Rudolf Steiner our present age falls in the post-Atlantic period, since in his vision the disaster that he claims to have struck Atlantis in 7227 BC is

(January 1, 3267)

End of the current cycle of the Julian calendar (julian date) introduced by Scaligero; in our calendar in reality the date will not coincide due to the changes introduced in it


The pH of the oceans will drop to 7.8. It was 8.2 in 1800, at the beginning of the 21st century. it’s 8.1. A decline of only 0.1 points, being the logarithmic scale, means an acidity of 30% greater. In 2100 the oceans will be 150% more acid than


The saturation state of the oceans with respect to aragonite (the most soluble form of calcium carbonate) drops to 3.0. It was 4.0 in 1800. The energy required for calcification increases, and the calcification process of corals dramatically collapses as a result.


The signal sent by Yvan Dutil and Stephane Dumas, financed by the Houston company Encounter 2001 Llc, with the Evpatoria radio telescope in Ukraine, reaches 4 solar-type stars

July 28, 2061

Passage of Halley’s comet, after 75 years, near the Earth. Keep the evening free on the calendar!

2060 – 2374

Despite all his warnings and intentions to look only to the past, in the last years of his life, Isaac Newton does not resist the temptation to stretch his gaze until the moment of the Last Judgment with this weak justification: “I indicate this period

July 1, 2047

Exactly 50 years after Hong Kong passed from Great Britain to China with a special statute, which provides for “one nation – two systems”, Hong Kong is fully integrated into China.

December 25, 2021

Early on Christmas morning, NASA’s groundbreaking new space observatory, the James Webb Space Telescope, successfully launched into space after taking off atop a European Ariane 5 rocket from French Guiana. The launch marks the beginning of one of the most anticipated NASA missions in decades, a

December 14, 2021

NASA reports that the American Parker probe has come to “touch” the Sun, or rather, it temporarily dives (at perihelion) inside (the upper part) of the solar atmosphere (ie the solar corona), it samples particles, and measures their magnetic field for the first time. In reality,


Demand for electronics skyrockets due to a “perfect storm”: as working and learning from home became the norm during COVID-19, the growing demand for electronic devices for consoles, PCs, smartphones, connectivity, and gone to the stars. The industry already had long production and delivery times (around

November 24, 2021

Physicists Giuseppe Mussardo and André LeClair publish an article in which, using physical rather than mathematical methods, they demonstrated (mathematically!) That “while a violation of the Riemann Hypothesis (RH) is strictly speaking not impossible, it is however extremely improbable. “; that is, it is technically possible

November 24, 2021

Vanderberg, California. Launch of the DART mission, with a Space X Falcon 9, to reach the asteroids Didymos and Dimorphos and hit one (the little Dimorphos) to study the technology to deflect the trajectory of NEO (Near Earth Objects) potentially dangerous for the Earth.

30 – 31 October 2021

G20 Summit in Rome, Italy. Prime Minister Mario Draghi welcomes US President Joe Biden (who also visited Pope Francis), who tells him «Mario, you are doing an extraordinary job. We need to show that democracies can work and that we can produce a new economic model. You are

October 27, 2021

Guriel, Galmuduk region, Somalia. The Somali national army regains control of the city, which had been taken by the ASWJ militia, a former ally in the war against Shabaab and Al-Qaeda. The dead are about 120 according to ASWJ and 16 according to the government, while over

25 October 2021

Colombia announces that drug trafficker Dairo Antonio Usuga, better known as Otoniel, the most wanted in the country, will be extradited to the United States after being captured in a raid, a joint operation of the army, air force and police. He led the country’s largest

16 October 2021

Cape Canaveral, Florida. Launch with an Atlas V 401 of the Lucy mission, of NASA, the first towards the Trojan asteroids, in the Lagrangian points L4 and L5 of the orbit of Jupiter.

13 October 2021

William Shatner (Captain Kirk in Star Trek), 90, is launched into space as an astro-tourist, along with Blue Origin’s VP of Flight Operations Audrey Powers and entrepreneurs Chris Boshuizen and Glen de Vries. Blue Origin’s New Shpeard capsule by Jeff Bezos describes a short parabola crossing,

10 October 2021

The man considered the “father of the nuclear bomb of Pakistan”, Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, died at the age of 85 after being hospitalized with Covid-19. Dr. Khan has been hailed as a national hero for turning his country into the world’s first Islamic nuclear power. But

6 October 2021

The Italian physicist Giorgio Parisi (INFN, La Sapienza University of Rome, vice president of the Accademia dei Lincei) takes the Nobel Prize in Physics for his studies on Complex Systems. He shares the Nobel Prize in Physics in half with Syukuro Manabe and Klaus Hasselmann. The two